Monday, November 19, 2018

October 2018, Current Affair’s (for CLAT)

1.      President Ram Nath Kovind has given his assent to the Karnataka Good Samaritan and Medical Professional (Protection and Regulation During Emergency Situations) Bill, 2016. The bill provides legal protection to the good samaritans in Karnataka, who help accident victims with emergency medical care within the golden hour. In medical terms, the 'golden hour' is the first hour after a traumatic injury when emergency treatment is very crucial.

2.      Dr. Evan Atar Adaha, surgeon and medical director at a hospital in Bunj of northeastern South Sudan, has won the prestigious the 2018 UNHCR Nansen Refugee for his outstanding 20-year commitment in providing medical services to people forced to flee conflict. He also provides health services to locals as well as refugees from Sudan's neighbouring Blue Nile State, in the small town of Bunj. South Sudan hosts nearly 300,000 refugees, of whom 92% are Sudanese from the South Kordofan and the Blue Nile regions close to the South Sudanese border. The prestigious award is presented every year to an individual or organization who has dedicated their time going above and beyond the call of duty to help people forcibly displaced from their homes. The Award is named after Norwegian polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen, who served as the first high commissioner for refugees during the failed League of Nations. The 2018 award ceremony will be held on October 1st in Geneva, Switzerland

3.      Renowned hindi commentator Jasdev Singh (87), who was the voice of Indian sports on Doordarshan, has passed away in New Delhi on September 25, 2018. He was a rare commentator who excelled in commentating on every sport including hockey and cricket. Interestingly, he started his career in All India Radio (AIR) in 1955 at their Jaipur station.

4.      The Mayor of Kolkata Municipal Corporaton (KMC) has recently launched India's first Flood Forecasting and Early Warning System (FFEWS) for Kolkata City to help city officials and citizens act decisively to minimize damage before and during disasters. India's first comprehensive city-level 'FFEWS' will reduce economic loss and impacts on livelihood and improve flood awareness and safety at community level. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded the design and implementation of the FFEWS through a $1 million technical assistance to KMC from its Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund under the Urban Financing Partnership Facility.

5.      The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new alcohol control initiative 'SAFER' to prevent and reduce alcohol-related death and disability. It provides five high-impact strategies that can help governments reduce the harmful use of alcohol and related health, social and economic consequences.

6.      The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded jointly to Dr. James P. Allison of the United States and Dr. Tasuku Honjo of Japan for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. Both the doctors, working separately, showed in the 1990s how certain proteins act as "brakes" on the immune system's T-cells, limiting their ability to attack cancer cells, and that suppressing those proteins could transform the body's ability to fight cancer. They used immunotherapy to help the cells of the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. Until their breakthroughs cancer treatment consisted of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Their work led to a fourth class of treatment, harnessing the immune system, what the Nobel committee at the Karolinska Institute called "an entirely new principle for cancer therapy."

7.      The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has expected India's economy to grow 7.0% in calendar year 2018 compared with 6.2% in 2017.

8.      India's first AICTE Training and Learning (ATAL) Academy will be established by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in Jaipur. Beside Jaipur, three other academies slated to come up in Baroda (Gujarat), Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) and Guwahati (Assam) by 2019.

9.      The Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has recently constituted an 11- member high-level committee on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to review the existing framework and guide and formulate the roadmap for a coherent policy on CSR under the companies law. The Committee, which will be headed by Corporate Affairs Secretary Injeti Srinivas, will analyze outcomes of CSR activities.

10.  Dr Susane Giti has been appointed the first-ever female major general in the 47 years history of Bangladesh.

11.  Gita Gopinath, professor at Harvard University, has been appointed chief economist of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The India-born economist will succeed Maurice (Maury) Obstfeld, who is to retire at the end of 2018.With this, Gopinath will become the 2nd Indian after former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan to be appointed to the position. According to the IMF statement, Gopinath who is a US citizen and an Overseas Citizen of India, is co-editor of the American Economic Review and co-director of the International Finance and Macroeconomics Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). She is co-editor of the current Handbook of International Economics with former IMF Economic Counsellor Kenneth Rogoff. Currently, Gopinath is the John Zwaanstra Professor of International Studies and Economics at Harvard University. She is the third woman in the history of Harvard to be a tenured professor at its esteemed economics department and the first Indian since the Nobel laureate Amartya Sen to hold that position.

12.  The 17th century 'Oonth Kadal' is a Mughal period arch-shaped bridge, located at the middle of the picturesque Dal lake in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir. Recently, it is in news because the Government of Germany has granted Rs 32 lakh for the conservation of the camel hump-shaped bridge.

13.  Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister, Dharmendra Pradhan has recently launched an innovative initiative called SATAT (Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation) in New Delhi on 1st October 2018 to promote Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) as an alternative fuel. In it, Public sector oil marketing companies – Indian Oil, Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum – will seek expression of interest from potential entrepreneurs to set up CBG production plants and make it available in the market for use as auto fuel. The Bio-gas is produced naturally through a process of anaerobic decomposition from waste / bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, sewage treatment plant waste, etc. After purification, it is compressed and called CBG, which has pure methane content of over 95%. Compressed Bio-Gas is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential. Thus, this move will benefit vehicle-users as well as farmers and entrepreneurs.

14.  On September 30, the Madhya Pradesh government has announced to set up a Ministry for Cows at a function in Khajuraho in Chhattarpur district to take care of cattle in a better way.

15.  Teenage shooting star Manu Bhaker has been named as the flag-bearer of the Indian contingent for the 3rd Youth Olympic Games to be held at Buenos Aires in Argentina from October 6-18. Goa Olympic Association Secretary Gurudutta D Bhakta will be the Chef-de-Mission of the contingent.

16.  On the occasion of 149th Gandhi Jayanti, the Odisha government has launched its own food security scheme to benefit 25 lakh poor people that were excluded from the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013.

17.  India has been ranked 5th, jointly with Hong Kong and Thailand, in terms of the largest pictorial warning on cigarette packs with 85% of both sides of the packets covered, according to latest Canadian Cancer Society report. As per 2018 report, Out of 206 nations, Timor Leste has the largest warning on cigarette packages in the world with 92.5% on front and back, followed by Nepal and Vanuatu with 90% and New Zealand at fourth with 87.5%.

18.  On the 149th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, Assam Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal hoisted India's tallest National Flag from the average city elevation at the Gandhi Mandap in Guwahati. The 9,600 sq ft flag stands on a 319.5 ft flag pole at Gandhi Mandap, a memorial for Mahatma Gandhi atop the Sarania Hill in the heart of Assam's principal city. The tip of the flag pole from the base of the hill is about 300 metres that makes it the tallest from the mean sea level. It carries a flag of 120×80 feet dimension.

19.  The 6th edition of joint Multi – National Maritime Exercise "IBSAMAR 2018" between the Indian, Brazilian and South African Navies has started at Simons Town, South Africa from 1st Oct 2018.

20.  The International Day of Older Persons is observed on 1st October every year to reaffirm the commitment to promoting the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by older persons. The 2018 theme is, 'Celebrating Older Human Rights champions'.

21.  The Government of India (GoI) has recently constituted a 7-member ministerial panel headed by Bihar Deputy Chief Minister Sushil Modi to examine modalities for revenue mobilisation in case of natural calamities and disasters. The panel would submit its report to the GST Council by October 31.

22.  The Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention (MGISC) has recently concluded in New Delhi on October 2. The purpose of the 4–day event was to share sanitation success stories and lessons from the participating countries. In it, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres addressed the convention. MGISC is organised by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation to mark the beginning of the 150th birth anniversary celebrations of Mahatma Gandhi.

23.  American scientist Arthur Ashkin, French engineer Gerard Mourou and Canadian professor Donna Strickland have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in the field of laser physics. Dr. Ashkin has been awarded the Prize "for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems. Dr. Mourou and Dr. Strickland have been awarded "for their method of generating high-intensity, ultrashort optical pulses". With this, Dr. Strickland has become the third female laureate to win the Nobel Prize in Physics, after Maria Goeppert-Mayer and Marie Curie.

24.  Rio Paralympic gold medallist Thangvellu Mariyappan has been named as flagbearer of the Indian contingent for the 3rd Paralympic Asian games to be held in Jakarta, Indonesia from October 6-13.

25.  On the occasion of the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated the world's largest dome at the Maharashtra Institute of Technology (MIT)'s World Peace University (MIT-WPU) campus at Loni Kalbhor, Pune. The dome is 160 ft in diameter and 263 ft tall. It is larger in area than the dome at St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City (which is 136 ft. in diameter and 448 ft. in height). The prayer hall can accommodate about 3,500 people and is embellished with more than 50 statues of saints, philosophers, scientists and statesmen from India and the world. Each of the statues, created by the noted artist 'Ram V. Sutar', is 4m in tall and weighs up to two tonnes.

26.  On October 4, the first ever Indo-Vietnam Coast Guard joint exercise – Sahyog HOP TAC -2018' held in the Bay of Bengal off Chennai between Indian and Vietnam Coast Guards (VGC).

27.  The 2018 Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to Dr. Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. Dr. Mukwege, a gynecologist in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is the helper who has devoted his life to defending victims of war-time sexual violence. Nadia Murad is a Yazidi Kurdish human rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State in Iraq. She is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against her and others. She has shown uncommon courage in recounting her own sufferings and speaking up on behalf of other victims. The prize will be presented in Oslo on December 10, the anniversary of the death of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, who founded the awards in his 1895 will.

28.  Union Civil Aviation Minister Suresh Prabhu has recently released the policy on the biometric-based digital processing of passengers at airports called "Digi Yatra" to make hassle-free air travel for passengers. Digi Yatra is about Facial Recognition based passenger processing which is a common standard being adopted the world over. It will facilitate paperless travel and avoid identity check at multiple points. In the first phase in February 2019, Hyderabad and Bengaluru international airports will have the system on a pilot basis.

29.  The 'Operation Samudra Maitri'has been launched by the Government of India (GoI) to provide massive humanitarian assistance to the earthquake and tsunami victims in Indonesia.

30.  The scientists have recently identified regions in the wheat genome responsible for concentration of zinc in wheat grain.

31.  On October 5, the 4th edition of the India International Science Festival (IISF – 2018) has started at Indira Gandhi Pratishthan in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The mega science expo will be formally inauguratedby the President Shri Ram NathKovind. It is being organized by Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with Vijnana Bharati. The theme of this edition of Science Festival is "Science for Transformation".

32.  India has signed $150 million loan pact with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to establish its first-ever Global Skills Park (GSP) in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The aim of the GSP is to enhance the quality of Technical and Vocational Education And Training (TVET) System in the State and create a more skilled workforce.

33.  The cave shrine of Mata Vaishnodevi in Reasi district of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has been declared the "cleanest religious place" in the country. This is the 2nd successive year when the board has been awarded in the field of sanitation as in 2017 it had received the 'Special Swachh Iconic Place' award under the 'Swachhta Hi Seva' campaign of the Government of India (GoI)

34.  The 10th Biennial International Exhibition & Conference "India Chem 2018" was held in Mumbai, Maharashtra from October 4-6.

35.  India has been ranked 28th among 73 countries in the Visa's 2018 Government ePayment Adoption Ranking (GEAR). The 2018 GEAR is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) global Index and benchmarking study commissioned by Visa.

36.  The World Teachers' Day (WTD), also known as International Teachers Day, is held every year on October 5 to focus on "appreciating, assessing and improving the educators of the world" and to provide an opportunity to consider issues related to teachers and teaching. The day also commemorate the anniversary of the signing of the 1966 ILO/UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers.

37.  Pravin Srivastava, the 1983-batch Indian Statistical Service officer, has been appointed as new Chief Statistician of India (CSI). This appointment comes into effect from the date of his assuming charge of the post till the date of his superannuation (August 31, 2020) or until further orders.

38.  In Assam, the Namrup-based Assam Petrochemicals Limited (APL) rolled out Asia's first cannisters based and India's first "Methanol Cooking Fuel Program" on 5th October 2018. The project has been promoted by NITI Aayog.

39.  Pankaj Sharma has been appointed India's Ambassador & permanent representative to United Nations Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. Sharma is currently the joint secretary (Disarmament and International Security Division) in the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). He will replace Amandeep Gill.

40.  Vikram Limaye, the MD and CEO of National Stock Exchange's (NSE), has been appointed the Chairman of the Working Committee (WoCo) and Director on the Board of the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE). The decision was taken at the global body's 58th general assembly and annual meeting that is currently underway in Athens, Greece.

41.  The Odisha and Andhra Pradesh Police have recently decided to conduct joint operations and share information to effectively combat the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in the border areas of the two states.

42.  The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has kept all key policy rates unchanged in its fourth bi-monthly monetary policy review, which is recently announced on October 5, 2018. A six-member Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), headed by Governor Urjit Patel, decided to keep the repo rate unchanged at 6.5% and the reverse repo rate at 6.25%. Repo rate is the rate at which RBI lends to banks, while the reverse repo is the rate at which RBI borrows money from banks. Accordingly, the Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) rate and the Bank Rate too were kept at 6.75%. On the growth front, RBI retained GDP growth projection for 2018-19 at 7.4%.

43.  The bilateral maritime exercise "JIMEX 18" has started between Japan and India at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh on October 7.

44.  Eminent Gandhian Natwar Thakkar (86), popularly known as 'Nagaland's Gandhi', has passed away in Guwahati on October 7, 2018.

45.  The 2018 Under-19 Asia Cup cricket tournament was held in Bangladesh from September 29 to October 07 at Chittagong and Cox's Bazar. In the final, India defeated Sri Lanka by 144 runs to win the tournament for the 6th time.

46.  Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik has recently launched the Nirman Kusuma scheme for providing financial assistance to the children of construction workers for their technical education in the State.

47.  R N Ravi, the former Chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), has been redesignated as the deputy National Security Advisor (NSA). He is also the Central government interlocutor for talks with Naga insurgent group National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM) and will continue to be the centre's interlocutor for Nagaland.

48.  The Government of India (GoI) has reconstituted Supreme Court-empowered Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA), which is tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the National Capital Region (NCR). The tenure of the last EPCA expired on 3rd October 2018. Former secretary Bhure Lal will continue to be the chairman of reconstituted Pollution watchdog EPCA.

49.  US duo William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer have won the 2018 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for research "about innovation, climate and economic growth". Laureate Romer was honoured for his work on the endogenous growth theory, which has generated vast amounts of new research into the regulations and policies that encourage new ideas and long-term prosperity. While Laureate Nordhaus was specifically honoured for "integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis". His research shows that the most efficient remedy for problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions is a global scheme of carbon taxes uniformly imposed on all countries. Nordhaus was the first person to create a quantitative model that describes the global interplay between the economy and the climate. His model is now widespread and is used to examine the consequences of climate policy interventions, for example carbon taxes. & The pair will share the 9 million Swedish kronor (S$1.3 million) prize.

50.  Jharkhand will be the partner state at Goa International Film Festival (GIFF-2018), which is scheduled to be held from 20th to 28th of November.

51.  On October 9 , External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj launched the "India for Humanity" in New Delhi under which the Jaipur Foot artificial limb will be distributed free of cost to the needy across the world. The initiative is launched in collaboration with the charitable organization "Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti" (BMVSS) to honour Mahatma Gandhi's service to humanity. 'India for Humanity'.

52.  The book "The Paradoxical Prime Minister: Narendra Modi And His India" has been authored by Congress parliamentarian Shashi Tharoor. It is divided in five sections comprising 50 chapters & will release on 26th October 2018. The first section takes a close look at Modi's life and times.

53.  India has been ranked 81st at the 2018 Henley Passport Index with visa-free or visa-onarrival access to 60 destinations. The strength of the passport is determined by the number of countries a country gives free access to. The index is updated in real-time, as and when visa-policy changes come into effect. As per the 2018 index, Indians have access to travel without a visa to 60 countries – which includes Bhutan, Mauritius, Nepal, Fiji, among others. The index is topped by Japanese passport, which means Japanese passport holders enjoy the most visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to the most destinations at 190. Singapore acquired 2nd postion, with visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 189 destinations. France, Germany, and South Korea follow at third with visafree or visa-on-arrival access to 188 destinations. The ranking is based on exclusive data from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), which maintains the world's largest and most comprehensive database of travel information, and is enhanced by extensive in-house research. In it, Afghanistan and Iraq were ranked lowest on the index, as they have free-visa access to only 30 countries.

54.  Researchers at the Washington University in the US have developed the world's first bio-electronic medicine — an implantable, biodegradable wireless device that speeds nerve regeneration and improves the healing of a damaged nerve.

55.  Senior Advocate Tushar Mehta has been appointed as Solicitor General of India (SGI). He will remain in office till 30th of June, 2020 or till further orders. Mr Mehta is currently serving as the Additional Solicitor General. The post of Solicitor General was vacant since October last year after the resignation of Ranjit Kumar.

56.  The International Day of the Girl is observed every year on October 11 to highlight and address the needs and challenges girls face while promoting girls' empowerment and the fulfilment of their human rights. The 2018 theme "With Her: A Skilled Girl Force".

57.  India's first second generation (2G) Ethanol Bio-Refinery will set up in Bargarh district of Odisha by 2020, where ethanol will be produced from rice straw. The proposed plant will be set up by the Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) at an estimated cost of Rs 100 crore. The foundation stone of which was laid on 10th October 2018. The bio-refinery will have a capacity to produce 3 crore litre of fuel-grade ethanol annually using rice straw as feedstock. The Bargarh Bio-Refinery will utilise about 2 lakh tonne of rice straw annually as feedstock which will be sourced from nearby locations including Bhatli, Ambabhona, Attabira, Sohela, Burla and Lakhanpur. The refinery will be based on zero-liquid discharge plant technology where water will be recycled back into the plant. Blending of ethanol in petrol will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions as compared to fossil fuels. Apart from Odisha, BPCL will also set up bio-refineries in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

58.  India has been ranked 147th among 157 countries at the UK-based charity Oxfam International's 'Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index' 2018. The 2nd edition of the annual index finds that countries such as South Korea, Namibia and Uruguay are taking strong steps to reduce inequality. However, countries such as India and Nigeria "do very badly" overall. In reference to India, the index finds that the tax structure looked reasonably progressive on paper but in practice much of the progressive taxation, like on incomes of the richest, was not collected. India also fared poorly on labour rights and respect for women in the workplace.The index was topped by Denmark, followed by Germany, Finland, Austria and Norway.

59.  The Maharashtra Prison department has rolled out a smart video- calling facility for female prisoners and inmates lodged at open jails across the state, after gaining success in its pilot project at Pune's Yerawada Central Prison (YCP).

60.  Veena Sendre from Chhattisgarh has been chosen as India's first 'Miss Trans Queen'. She defeated Namita Ammu of Tamil Nadu to claim the title at the national-level beauty contest organised in Mumbai on October 7. Sendre, a former Miss Chhattisgarh, belongs to Mandir Hasaud village in Raipur

61.  Tata Group veteran Sunil Bhaskaran has been appointed as the new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Managing Director (MD) of low cost carrier AirAsia India with effect from November 15, 2018. He will oversee the next phase of expansion and growth of the company, AirAsia India said in a statement. The airline, jointly owned by Tata Sons and Air Asia Bhd, has been without a CEO for the past six months.

62.  On October 11, the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) launched a Roll onRoll off (Ro-Ro) service in Assam from Neamati to Manjuli island. This service will reduce the road route distance of 423 km that trucks take from Neamati to Majuli Island via Tezpur Road Bridge to only 12.7 km with the use of river route. The IWAI has procured a new vessel MV Bhupen Hazarika at a cost of Rs 9.46 crore for the new service.

63.  Annapurna Devi (91), the renowned Hindustani musician, passed away in Mumbai on October 13, 2018. Born in Maihar (Madhya Pradesh) in 1927, she was the daughter and disciple of Allauddin Khan (who was the founder of Maihar gharana). She was given the name 'Annapurna' by former Maharaja Brijnath Singh of the former Maihar Estate (M.P.), and it was by this name that she was popularly known. Annapurna was an Indian Surbahar (bass sitar) player of Hindustani classical music. She was married to sitar maestro Pandit Ravi Shankar, but he divorced her and went to USA in 1962. After her divorce, she never performed again in public. She had had notable disciples viz.: Hariprasad Chaurasia, Nityanand Haldipur, Nikhil Banerjee, Amit Bhattacharya, Pradeep Barot, Sudhir Phadke, Sandhya Apte and Saswatti Saha.

64.  India has been elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) with the highest number of votes among all 18 countries in the five regional categories. It secured 188 votes in the Asia-Pacific category for a period of three years beginning January 1, 2019. It is followed by Fiji with 187 votes, Bangladesh 178, Bahrain and Philippines 165 each. This will be the fifth time that India will serve on the Genevabased Council, the main body of the UN charged with promoting and monitoring human rights.

65.  India's first-ever India-Israel Innovation Centre (IIIC), an entrepreneurial technology hub, was launched at the 3rd edition of IoT India Congress in Bengaluru, Karnataka on October 10, 2018.

66.  Sikkim has won the Gold at the 2018 FAO's Future Policy Award (FPA) for its achievement in becoming the world's first totally organic agriculture state. All of its farmland is certified organic.

67.  The World Bank (WB) has recently released its first-ever Human Capital Index (HCI), which ranked 157 economies on parameters like child mortality, health and education. India is ranked at 115th position in the index with its score of 0.44 on a scale of 0 to 1 coming even below the average score for South Asia. Though, Government of India (GoI) has rejected the findings of the index. India's neighbours Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka were better placed at 106th, 102nd and 74th position, respectively. Singapore topped the poll after it was highly rated for its universal healthcare system, education exams results and life expectancy figures. It is followed by South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Finland.

68.  The World Egg Day (WED) is celebrated every year on the second Friday in October and was first celebrated in 1996. The day helps to raise awareness of the benefits of eggs and their importance in human nutrition. Eggs are one of nature's highest quality sources of protein, and indeed contain many of the key ingredients for life. The proteins contained within eggs are highly important in the development of the brain and muscles, have a key role to play in disease prevention and contribute to general well being. The 2018 theme is "Protein for Life".

69.  Great Britain lifted the 8th edition of Sultan Johar Cup Junior Hockey tournament in Johor Bahru, Malaysia on October 13, 2018. In the final, Great Britain defeated India 3- 2. The other teams in the tournament were Japan, Australia, Malaysia and New Zealand.

70.  India has been ranked 103rd among 119 countries in the 2018 Global Hunger Index (GHI). The 2018 GHI report was prepared jointly by global NGOs namely – Concern Worldwide (Ireland) and Welthungerhilfe (Germany). The index indicates that the level of hunger and undernutrition worldwide falls into the serious category, at a value of 20.9, down from 29.2 in 2000.

71.  Dr. Teejan Bai, the folk artist from Chhattisgarh, has won the 2018 Fukuoka Arts and Culture Prize, one of the top honours of Japan. It was the first time she had been formally recognised abroad and she was flabbergasted that anyone in Japan had heard of her or her art: Pandavani. Dr. Teejan is a leading performing artist and a contemporary exponent of Pandavani, a narrative singing of the ancient Indian epic "Mahabharata".

72.  Maryse Conde, a French (Guadeloupean) author of historical fiction, has won the 2018 New Academy Prize in Literature, which is formed in protest to the Nobel Literature Prize. Conde will win about £87,000 raised from crowdfunding and donations, and will receive the prize at a ceremony on 9 December, one day before the Nobel banquet. In 2018, the Nobel Prize in Literature was postponed for the first time since 1949 because of a sexual misconduct scandal that came to light as part of the #MeToo movement.

73.  Dr. Shekhar C Mande, a biologist, has been appointed Director-General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Research (DSIR).

74.  The International Day for Disaster Reduction is observed every year on October 13 to promote a global culture of risk-awareness and disaster reduction. The 2018 theme is 'Reducing Disaster Economic Losses'.

75.  The book "Maharana Pratap: The Invincible Warrior" is authored by noted historian Rima Hooja.

76.  Priyank Kanoongo has been appointed the new Chairperson of National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) for a period of 3 years. The post of chairperson fell vacant after Stuti Kacker's tenure ended on September 16, 2018. The NCPCR is a statutory body, which was set up by an Act of Parliament in 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.

77.  Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Diwas is celebrated every year on 15th of October to increase active participation of women in agriculture & allied sectors.

78.  Paul Allen (65), who co-founded Microsoft with his childhood friend Bill Gates, has passed away in Seattle on October 15 , 2018. In 1975, they founded the Microsoft at Albuquerque in New Mexico.

79.  The 14th edition of the Men's Hockey World Cup will be held at the Kalinga Stadium in Bhubaneswar from 28 November to 16 December, 2018. Turtle Olly has been declared as the official mascot of 2018 tournament at the Puri sea beach in Odisha.

80.  The ICICI Bank was originally established by ICICI Limited as a wholly owned subsidiary in 1994. Though, Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) was formed in 1955 as a joint-venture of the World Bank, the Government of India (GoI) and representatives of Indian industry. The principal objective was to create a development financial institution for providing medium-term and long-term project financing to Indian businesses. Recently, it is in news because the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has approved appointment of Sandeep Bakshi as Managing Director and CEO of the private sector lender ICICI Bank for 3 years. He succeeded Chanda Kochhar, who is facing enquiry over the charges of nepotism and conflict of interest. Ms Kochhar had quit the bank on October 4 before her current tenure was to end. She also resigned from all subsidiaries of the bank, including ICICI Securities where she had sought reappointment as the chairperson.

81.  Recently, the Uttar Pradesh Cabinet has officially adopted a proposal to rename the historic city of Allahabad as Prayagraj. The city was known as Prayag before 16thcentury Mughal emperor Akbar built a fort near the confluence of the Ganga and the Yamuna and named it "Ilahabad". His grandson Shah Jahan renamed the entire city "Allahabad". An area near the confluence of the river continues to be known as Prayag. The confluence of two rivers is a 'prayag', and in Allahabad three rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati meet. Hence, it is the king of 'prayags'. That is why it is 'Prayagraj'. Now, the proposal will now go to the Centre before the city is officially renamed even though an Uttar Pradesh minister seemed to suggest the change has already come into effect.

82.  The International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is observed every year on October 17 to recognize the struggles of the impoverished and to make their voices heard by governments and ordinary citizens. The 2018 theme is "Coming together with those furthest behind to build an inclusive world of universal respect for human rights and dignity".

83.  The World Food Day (WFD) is observed every year across the world on 16th of October to commemorate the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 1945. The theme for WFD 2018 is "Our Actions Are Our Future ! A #ZeroHunger World by 2030 is possible".

84.  The 12th Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) summit 2018 will be held in Brussels, Belgium from October 18 with theme "Global Partners for Global Challenges". Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu will lead the Indian delegation at the two-day summit. This will also be the first multilateral summit that Vice President will be attending after taking office in August 2017. Besides One to One meeting with the King of the Belgians, Mr. Naidu will have bilateral meetings with various Heads of State on the sidelines of the Summit. The ASEM summit is the highest platform for dialogue and cooperation between Asia and Europe in the areas of trade, investment, security and tourism.

85.  The festival of Fulpati has recently celebrated with traditional gaiety and religious fervour in various parts of Nepal. Fulpati is observed on the 7th day of Dashain festival. In Nepali, "Phool" means flower and "Pati" means leaves and plants. There is a tradition in Nepal to bring nine types of Fulpati into the home on the seventh day of Navaratri.

86.  On October 18, the 12th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) summit has started in Brussels, Belgium with theme "Global Partners for Global Challenges". 

87.  Irish Author Anna Burns has won the prestigious 2018 Man Booker Prize for Fiction for her novel 'Milkman'. With this, she became the first Northern Irish author and the first woman since 2013 to win the prize. Milkman is an exploration of Northern Ireland's three decades of sectarian violence told through the voice of a young woman. The novel chronicles the struggles of a middle sister in a family as she confronts rumour, social pressures and politics amid violent sectarian divisions in her community.She had previously authored two novels – 'No Bones' and 'Little Constructions

88.  India has been ranked as the 58th most competitive economy on the World Economic Forum (WEF)'s Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) for 2018. The WEF stated that India's rank rose by five places from 2017, the largest gain among G20 economies. On the list of 140 economies, the US topped the list followed by Singapore and Germany. As per the report, India leads the region in all other areas of competitiveness except for health, education and skills. It further added that India has invested more heavily on transport infrastructure and services. As per the report, India's greatest competitive advantages include its market size and innovation. Among the BRICS economies, China topped the list at 28th place. India, however, remained the "South Asia's main driving force". The GCI 4.0 is a composite indicator that assesses the set of factors that determine an economy's level of productivity – widely considered as the most important determinant of long-term growth.

89.  Canada has officially become the 2nd Country in the world to legalize the recreational use of marijuana nationwide after Uruguay.

90.  On 16th October 2018, China has successfully tested the world's largest unmanned transport drone "Feihong-98 (FH-98)", which can carry a payload of 1.5 tonnes, at Baotou test site in North China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region. The Feihong-98 has a maximum takeoff weight of 5.25 tonnes, a flight height of 4,500m, a cruising speed of 180 km/hr and a maximum range of 1,200 kms. The FH-98 was adapted from the prototype of the Shifei Y5B, a China-developed transport plane. It is developed and modified by the China Academy of Aerospace Electronics Technology (CAAET).

91.  The World Students' Day (WSD) is observed every year on 15th of October to mark the birth anniversary of former President of India and great scientist Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. Dr. Kalam was also the great author. Among his books are: 'Wings of Fire', 'My journey', 'Ignited Minds – Unleashing the power within India' and 'India 2020 – A Vision for the New Millennium'. In 2015 the United Nations declared 15 October "World Students' Day". The day is a celebration of multiculturalism, diversity and cooperation among students across the globe.

92.  As per clause (2) of Article 75 of the Constitution, President Ram Nath Kovind has recently accepted the resignation of M J Akbar from the Union council of ministers on the advice of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. He resgined from the post of Minister of State for External Affairs due to allegations of sexual harassment levelled against him by several women journalists.

93.  The first-ever Indo-Japan joint military exercise "Dharma Guardian- 2018" will be conducted at Counter Insurgency Warfare School, Vairengte from 01 November to 14 November.

94.  The famous Shahi litchi of North Bihar has got the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It is the 4th product from the state after Jardalu mango, Katarni rice and Magahi paan to have got the GI tag. GI is a name or sign used on products to certify that they possess certain qualities for being made or produced as per traditional methods or enjoy a certain reputation due to its geographical origin. Shahi Litchi is mainly cultivated in Muzaffarpur, Samastipur, Vaishali, East Champaran and Begusarai and some parts of adjoining areas in agro-climatic areas of the state. According to agriculture scientists, due to high calcium content in the soil, litchi is better in these areas. A total of 3 lakh metric tonnes of different varieties of litchi were produced in Bihar in 2017-18, out of which 60 per cent were Shahi litchis.

95.  The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) , Lucknow has developed an innovative technology for "Drinking Water Disinfection System" with Trade name "OneerTM" . ONEER TM is useful for continuous treatment of water and eliminates all disease causing pathogens such as virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and cyst to provide safe drinking water to domestic and communities.

96.  Kerala is now set to become the India's first smoke-free State with public sector oil companies eyeing 100% LPG penetration here. It is estimated that one crore tonnes of emissions, from poisonous gases like firewood cooking, have been contained and 25 lakh trees have been saved with the introduction of LPG in villages. The target has almost been achieved in most villages, mofussil towns and cities in the State under the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY).

97.  Piyush Goyal, the Union Minister of Railways & Coal, will be honoured with the 2018 Carnot Prize of Kleinman Center for Energy Policy at the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Design.

98.  The first-ever joint maritime exercise will be conducted between ASEAN and China in the South China Sea near the city of Zhanjiang in an effort to reduce tensions in the disputed region.

99.  The Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa (DNT) will form new government in Bhutan after the party winning 30 seats in 47 member National Assembly, the lower house of the parliament. The Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) has got remaining 17 seats. This is the first time in Bhutan's decade old parliamentary democracy that a new party has been chosen to form the government. According to the Election Commission of Bhutan, 71.46% polling was recorded in the third general election. DNT President Dr. Lotay Tshering won from South Thimphu constituency with a huge margin and vowed to work for "nation building" in the country which is battling high foreign debt, mainly owed to India, as well as youth employment, rural poverty and criminal gangs.

100.    The European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have successfully launched an unmanned Bepi Colombo spacecraft into orbit from an Ariane 5 rocket for a joint mission to Mercury, the planet closest to the sun. The spacecraft has been named after Italian scientist Giuseppe "Bepi" Colombo. The unmanned spacecraft will have to follow an elliptical path that involves a fly-by of Earth, two of Venus and six of Mercury itself so it can slow down before arriving at its destination in December 2025.

101.    On Oct. 27, Turkey will host the four nation summit on Syria crisis in Istanbul to discuss the conflict in Syria the leaders of Turkey, France, Germany and Russia. Russia is a main backer of Syrian President Bashar Assad's government while Turkey has been helping insurgents trying to remove him from power.

102.    By using Hubble Space Telescope, the scientists of NASA have found that violent flares from the Young Red Dwarf Stars may make planets orbiting it uninhabitable by affecting their atmospheres. Hubble is observing such stars through a large programme called HAZMAT — Habitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time. The purpose of the HAZMAT program is to help understand the habitability of planets around lowmass stars. The word "HAZMAT" describes substances that pose a risk to the environment, or even to life itself. "M dwarf" is the astronomical term for a red dwarf star. The programme is an ultraviolet survey of red dwarfs at three different ages – young, intermediate, and old. According to NASA, Stellar flares from red dwarf star, are particularly bright in ultraviolet wavelengths, compared with Sun-like stars.

103.    Dutch photographer Marsel van Oosten has won the prestigious Wildlife Photographer Of The Year (WPY) 2018 for his stunning portrait of two endangered golden snubnosed monkeys in China's Qinling mountains. The winning image – named as 'Golden Couple' – showcases a beautiful golden fur-blue face male monkey rested briefly on a stone seat, joined by female baby monkey.

104.    On 21st October 1943, the Azad Hind Government was formed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, who was the leader of Azad Hind Government and also the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government-in-exile. It was a part of the freedom movement, originating in 1940s outside India with a purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British rule.

105.    President Ram Nath Kovind has inaugurated a 3-day 'Vishwa Shanti Ahimsa Sammelan (VSAS-2018)' at Mangi Tungi in Nashik district of Maharashtra on October 22.

106.    US-based Dalit writer Sujatha Gidla has won the prestigious 2018 Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize for her book "Ants Among Elephant:

107.    The State Bank of India (SBI) has become the India's first PSU bank to introduce comprehensive wealth business services for its clients. The wealth hub was inaugurated by SBI Chairman Rajnish Kumar at the Lalbagh branch in Mangalore.

108.    Indian researchers have developed a new skin gel "poly-Oxime" that inhibits the absorption of the most commonly used pesticides such as Organophosphorous compounds, that can cause serious ill effects on health and, in worst cases, result in the death of pesticide handlers such as farmers. The 13-member team led by Dr. Praveen Kumar Vemula have formulated and patented the poly-Oxime gel made of chemically modified chitosan — found in the shells of crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and shrimps.

109.    India's first domestic cruise 'Angriya' has recently been flagged off from Mumbai to Goa on October 20 to boost the country's lagging cruise service sector. The cruise has six decks and 104 cabins. It can ferry 399 passengers at a time. It has eight types of rooms – from dormitories to luxury rooms. The price range of the cruise will be from Rs 7,000 to Rs 12,000 for one-way. The ship will run four times a week, except during monsoons. It is named after India's first naval commander Admiral Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre, who served in Shivaji's armament, and who believed one should have a separate Navy to control the waters.

110.    India has been ranked as the 9th most valuable nation brand in the world, according to UK-based consultancy Brand Finance's Nation Brands 2018 report. Despite, India lost one spot to rank, its brand value increased by 5% to $2,159 billion. The US topped the list with a brand value of $25,899 billion, an increase of 23% from the previous year. China ranked 2nd position with a brand value of $12,779 billion, followed by Germany ($5,147 billion), UK ($3,750 billion), Japan ($3,598 billion) and France with $3,224 billion of brand value.

111.    On October 22, renowned jurist Fali S. Nariman has been honoured with the 19th Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award for Excellence in Public Administration for year 2018 by the Vice President of India M. Venkaiah Naidu. The award was instituted by the Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management in 1995.

112.    The Sittwe Port is a deepwater port at the mouth of the Kaladan River in Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine State in Myanmar. The port was constructed by India in 2016. The Sittwe port will connect India's landlocked north-east region to the Bay of Bengal through Mizoram. It will also provide an alternate route to Kolkata.

113.    The National Police Commemoration Day (NPCD) is observed every year on October 21 to remember the sacrifices of ten policemen who died in Chinese firing in 1959 in Ladakh's Hot Spring area. Indian Police personnel were responsible for manning the 2,500 mile long border of India with Tibet until the autumn of 1959. In 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi dedicated the National Police Memorial (NPM) in New Delhi to the nation in recognition of the sacrifices made by soldiers from the paramilitary forces and state police since India's independence. The Prime Minister also announced an award in the name of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, to honour the police and paramilitary personnel, involved in disaster response operations.

114.    The Mumbai cricket team clinched the 2018 Vijay Hazare Trophy after a gap of 11 years with a 4-wicket victory over Delhi at the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bengaluru.

115.    Japanese-born Marine biologist Osamu Shimomura (90), who won the 2008 Nobel Prize in chemistry, has passed away in Nagasaki, Japan on 19th October 2018. Shimomura and two American scientists shared the 2008 Nobel prize for the discovery and development of a jellyfish protein (or Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)) that later contributed to cancer studies. He was born in northern Kyoto in 1928 and studied in Nagasaki, where he survived the Aug. 9, 1945, U.S. atomic bombing at age 16. In 1960, he moved to Princeton University, where he isolated the protein in samples of thousands of jellyfish taken from the U.S. West Coast. The protein known as GFP lets off a glow when it is illuminated with ultraviolet light and has become a key tool in studying biological processes in cells.

116.    China has officially opened the world's longest sea-crossing bridge, which connects the Chinese city of Zhuhai to the semi-autonomous regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

117.    In Cameroon, Paul Biya, who has ruled the country with an iron fist since 1982, won the 7th presidential term with a landslide victory in a controversial presidential election on October 23, 2018.

118.    Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been chosen for the 2018 Seoul Peace Prize in recognition of his dedication to improving international co-operation, raising global economic growth, and accelerating the Human Development of people in India.

119.    The 2018 WETEX (Water, Energy, Technology, and Environment Exhibition) has started at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre in Dubai from October 23.

120.    Agricultural scientist Prof. M.S. Swaminathan will be honoured with the ICFA's firstever World Agriculture Prize for his basic and applied research in genetics, cytogenetics, radiation and chemical mutagenesis, food and biodiversity conservation.

121.    The International Conference on Status and Protection of Coral Reefs (STAPCOR 2018) was held at Bangaram Island, Lakshadweep with theme "Reef for Life" from October 22-24. It was organised by the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) in coordination with the local administration. The Conference highlighted the importance of coral reefs and the need for its protection, emphasising on converting science into adequate policies for conservation. Around 150 delegates from the US, UK, Kuwait, Italy, France, Maldives and Sri lanka participated in this mega event.

122.    The joint military training exercise 'Druzhba (Friendship)-III' has started between the armies of Russia and Pakistan in the mountains of northwestern Pakistan, which will continue till November 4. The servicemen from the two countries' armed forces will perform tasks at the altitude of 1,400 meters above the sea level. The purpose of the 15- days exercise is to boost ties between the two militaries and swap experience, especially in field of counterterrorism. This is third exercise as part of the Pakistan-Russia bilateral training cooperation. The exercise will include the destruction of conditional fighters (terrorists).

123.    The 15th edition of International Dance Festival "Udbhav Utsav 2018" was held in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh from October 20-25. It was inaugurated by Uzbekistan Ambassador to India Farhod Arziev.

124.    India's first engine-less train "Train 18" is set to hit the tracks for trials on October 29, which is designed and manufactured by the Chennai-based Integral Coach Factory (ICF) at a cost of Rs 100 crore. It is being regarded as a successor to the 30-year-old Shatabdi Express.

125.    The Government of India (GoI) has recently constituted a Group of Ministers (GoM) to examine the existing legal and institutional frameworks for dealing with matters of sexual harassment of women at the workplace. It will be chaired by the Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh.

126.    In New Delhi, Minister of Human Resource Development Prakash Javadekar launched the web portal of the Scheme "Impactful Policy Research in Social Sciences (IMPRESS)" on October 25 to strengthen the research ecosystem in the country. The objective of IMPRESS is to identify and fund research proposals in social sciences with maximum impact on the governance and society. It will provide an opportunity for social science researchers in any institution in the country which includes all universities (Central and State), private institutions with 12(B) status conferred by UGC.

127.    The 11th edition of Global Agriculture Leadership Summit 2018 in New Delhi from October 24 with theme "Connecting Farmers to Market". The purpose of the 2-day summit is to discuss the national and global marketing scenario and success models to provide the best marketing models and linkages to Indian farmers through policy reforms and collaborative efforts.

128.    India, Afghanistan and Iran has recently hold their first trilateral meeting on Chabahar port project in Tehran during which they reviewed its implementation. The Indian delegation was led by TS Tirumurti, Secretary (Economic Relations).

129.    The United Nations Day (UND) is observed every year on October 24 to make known to the people about the aims and achievements of the United Nations (UN). The day also marks the 73rd anniversary of the UN Charter, which came into force in 1945.

130.    On October 25, Minister of Human Resource Development Prakash Javadekar launched the web portal of of the Scheme "Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC)" in New Delhi. The aim of the SPARC is to improve the research ecosystem of India's higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations between Indian and foreign institutions.

131.    In Cricket, Indian captain Virat Kohli has recently become the fastest batsman to reach 10,000 runs in One-Day Internationals (ODIs) after scoring a second consecutive century against West Indies in Vizag on October 24. He broke the record of compatriot and batting great Sachin Tendulkar, who had reached the milestone in 259 innings. Kohli, who took only 205 innings to achieve the record, has become the fifth Indian to reach the 10,000 mark in ODIs.

132.    Renowned sculptor Ram Vanji Sutar, who has designed the Statue of Unity in Narmada district in Gujarat, will be conferred with the prestigious 2016 Tagore Award for Cultural Harmony. Beside Sutar, the Tagore Award for Cultural Harmony for the years 2014 and 2015 is being conferred on the doyen of Manipuri dance Sh. Rajkumar Singhajit Singh and Chhayanaut (a cultural organization of Bangladesh), respectively. The award recognizes Rajkumar's contribution in keeping the tradition of Manipuri dance alive and vibrant, promoting harmony through dance and also pays tribute to Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Chhayanaut, established in 1961, was part of the movement for an independent Bangladesh and provided a platform for cultural expression and assertion of Bengali identity. The award was instituted by the Government of India (GoI) during the commemoration of the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore in 2011. It carries an award prize of Rs 1 crore, a citation in a scroll and a plaque.

133.    The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given its ex-post facto approval to the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between India and Singapore in June 2018 on the constitution of a Joint Working Group (JWG) on FinTech.

134.    In New Delhi, Malayalam author Benyamin has bagged the first JCB Prize for literature for his book 'Jasmine Days', which explores the lives of South Asians in the Middle East. The novel was originally written in Malayalam and translated by Shahnaz Habib. It tells the story of a young woman in a city where the promise of revolution turns into destruction and division. It revolves around the Jasmine Revolution that sprang up in December 2010 and was quelled by January 2011.

135.    An ancient Greek merchant ship dating back more than 2,400 years has been found virtually intact at the bottom of the Black Sea by an Anglo-Bulgarian team. An international team of maritime archaeologists believed that the 23m (75ft) wreck is the world's oldest intact shipwreck where it appears to have lain undisturbed for more than 2,400 years. The vessel is one of more than 60 shipwrecks identified by the Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project including Roman ships and a 17th-century Cossack raiding fleet.

136.    Sri Lanka has been chosen as the best travel destination among the list of countries to visit in 2019, according to Lonely planet's Best in Travel 2019 book.

137.    The Punjab Government has decided to ban the sale of glyphosate, a herbicide which is extensively used in the State to control a wide variety of weeds in almost all the crops. This chemical has been observed to be a Group 2A cancer-causing material. Besides cancer, this chemical is also known for causing other health problems and has the potential to damage human DNA as per the opinion of experts from PGIMER, Chandigarh. Glyphosate is sold in the country under various trade names such as Round-up, Excell, Glycel, Glider, Glydon, etc.

138.    The Government of India (GoI) has recently notified that the State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorised to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 29 Authorised Branches from November 1 to 10, 2018. The bonds will be issued in multiples of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore. As per provisions of the Electoral Bond Scheme 2018, Electoral Bonds may be purchased by a person who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India. Only the Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (43 of 1951) and which secured not less than 1% of the votes polled in the most recent Lok Sabha or State election , shall be eligible to receive the Electoral Bonds. Donors can donate the bonds to their party of choice which can then be cashed in via the party's verified account within 15 days. It must be noted that an electoral bond is designed to be a bearer instrument like a Promissory Note — in effect, it will be similar to a bank note that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest.

139.    The researchers at the University of Michigan in the US have developed a web-based tool to help monitor the prevalence of fake news on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.

140.    The researchers at IIT-Madras have designed and booted up India's first indigenously developed microprocessor that can be used in mobile computing devices, embedded low power wireless systems and networking systems besides reducing reliance on imported microprocessors in communications and defence sectors. The 'Shakti' family of processors was fabricated at Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL) of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in Chandigarh.

141.    On October 30, the Union Shipping Minister Nitin Gadkari and Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan will lay the foundation of India's largest Dry Dock at Cochin Shipyard in Kerala. The Dry Dock will give an impetus to "Make in India" initiative under Sagarmala and raise India's share in global shipbuilding to 2%. With this, Cochin Shipyard will be able to build specialized and technologically advanced large vessels.

142.    The Government of India (GoI) has recently signed $75 bn bilateral currency swap agreement with Japan to bring greater stability in foreign exchange and capital markets in the country. The currency swap pact would enable the two major Asian economies to swap their local currencies – either Indian rupee or the Japanese yen against the US$ up to 75 billion. It will be used only when required, and will help meet short-term liquidity mismatches. Japan had offered a $50 billion currency swap in 2013 as well and even before that, one for $3 billion in 2008.

143.    The Manipur government will celebrate the "2018 Sangai Festival" at three venues namely Keibul Lamjao, Imphal (Hapta Kangjeibung and Lamboikhongnangkhong) and Mao from 21st to 30th November. It is an annual cultural festival organised by Manipur Tourism Department to promote state as a world class tourism destination. It is named after the State animal 'Sangai' the brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur.

144.    In Brazil, far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro has won a sweeping victory in the 2018 Presidential elections. He is scheduled to take office on 1st January 2019 and will succeed Michel Temer.

145.    In Men's Hockey, India and Pakistan were declared joint winners of the 5th edition of Asian Champions Trophy 2018 at Muscat in Oman on October 28, after the final was abandoned due to bad weather.

146.    Michael D Higgins has been re-elected as the President of Ireland after receiving 56% of the country's votes in the elections. He is serving the post of President since November 2011.

147.    Nobel Prize Winner Malala Yousafzai will be honoured by Harvard University for her work promoting girls' education. The award will be conferred with the 2018 Gleitsman Award at a ceremony on 6th December. Currently, Yousafzai is a student at Oxford University in England. The Gleitsman Award provides $125,000 for activism that has improved quality of life around the world. Yousafzai became the youngest person to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 when she was recognized for her global work supporting schooling for all children.

148.    The world's largest airport terminal "under one roof" has officially been opened in Istanbul on October 29, which marks the Republic Day of Turkey. It is dubbed as phase-1A of the project – Istanbul New Airport – will have a capacity to handle 90 million passenger per year.

149.    The Andhra Pradesh government is building a world-class and India's first 'Justice City' within its new capital Amaravati with the vision to provide a state-of-the-art ecosystem built on latest technology for supporting the judicial system in the state.

150.    The scientists at CSIR have developed Less Polluting 'Green' Firecrackers which are not only environment friendly but 15-20 % cheaper than the conventional ones. These crackers have been named as Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL) and Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR). The commonly used pollution-causing chemicals – aluminium, barium, potassium nitrate and carbon – have either been removed or sharply reduced in the green crackers to reduce emissions by 15-30% .

151.    Recently, the 19th meeting of the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) held under the Chairmanship of the Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley reviewed the current global and domestic economic situation and financial sector performance. The FSDC is an apex-level body to strengthen and institutionalise the mechanism of maintaining financial stability, financial sector development, inter-regulatory coordination along with monitoring macro-prudential regulation of economy