Monday, October 8, 2018

September 2018, Current Affair’s (for CLAT)

1.      Justice Tahira Safdar has been sworn-in as the first woman Chief Justice of Balochistan High Court at a ceremony held at the Governor House in Balochistan. She will remain in this post until 4 October 2019. With this, she became the first female chief justice of any court in the history of Pakistan. Earlier, Safdar created history in 1982 when she became the first female civil judge in Balochistan. Currently, Justice Tahira is a member of the 3-judge special court conducting the trial of former president Pervez Musharraf for committing treason by proclaiming a state of emergency on 3rd November 2007.

2.      The 4th International Ayurveda Congress (IAvC) 2018 has been inaugurated by Minister of State for AYUSH Shripad Yesso Naik at Leiden, the Netherlands on September 1. The congress would focus on promotion and propagation of Ayurveda in the Netherlands and its neighbouring countries of Europe. The 2-day congress is jointly organized by International Maharishi Ayurveda Foundation (Netherlands), All India Ayurvedic Congress (New Delhi) and the International Academy of Ayurveda (Pune) in association with the Indian Embassy in the Netherlands. A special Seminar is also organized by the Indian Embassy titled “India-Netherlands collaboration in Healthcare, including Ayurveda”.

3.      Pranab Bardhan (60) and Shibnath Sarkar (56) have created history by clinching India’s first-ever gold in bridge at the Asian Games. They finished at the top after scoring 384 points in the final of the men’s bridge pair event at the 2018 Jakarta Asian Games. The Chinese pair of Lixin Yang and Gang Chen won the silver with a score of 378 and the Indonesian combination of Henky Lasut and Freddy Eddy Manoppo bagged the bronze scoring 374 here. The card game has been featured as a sport at the Asian Games for the first time, in the 2018 edition.

4.      Sunil Mehta, the MD &chief executive of Punjab National Bank (PNB), has been elected as the new chairman of the Indian Banks Association (IBA) for 2018-19. Apart from him, Dinabandhu Mohapatra, MD & CEO of Bank of India (BoI), has been elected as IBA’s Deputy Chairman. The IBA is a representative body of management of banking in India and has its headquarters in Mumbai.

5.      Two Indians, Dr. Bharat Vatwani and Sonam Wangchuk received the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award for 2018 on August 31. The award, which is regarded as the Asian version of the Nobel Prize, was established in 1957. The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation, in its citation, stated that Wangchuk was recognised for his uniquely systematic, collaborative and community-driven reform of learning systems in remote northern India, thus improving the life opportunities of Ladakhi youth. Vatwani was recognised for his tremendous courage and healing compassion in embracing India’s mentally-afflicted destitute. Beside them, Youk Chhang from Cambodia, Maria de Lourdes Martins Cruz from East Timor, Howard Dee from the Philippines and Vo Thi Hoang Yen from Vietnam are the other winners of the 2018 award.

6.      Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Nepalese counterpart K P Sharma Oli jointly inaugurated a 400-bed Nepal-Bharat Maitri Pashupati Dharamshala in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a rest house for pilgrims, which is located on the banks of the Bagmati River. The Dharmashala is build with the Indian assistance and has provision for family rooms, kitchen, dining hall, library and some multipurpose halls to meet the requirements of the travellers and families on pilgrimage to Pashupatinath Temple.

7.      Renowned Digambar Jain Muni Tarun Sagar ji (51), who was popularly known for his sermons titled ‘Kadve Pravachan’, has passed away in New Delhi on September 1, 2018. He was born as Pawan Kumar Jain on 1967 in Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh, and accepted celibacy and decided to lead a life of a monk in the year 1981. Unlike most other Digambar jain monks, his audience often includes a majority of non-Jains. His discourses often address family or society issues, topics generally avoided by other Jain monks. All his life, he spread the message of peace and non-violence in the society.
8.      On September 1, Indian boxer Amit Panghal from Haryana won a historic gold after beating Rio Olympics gold medallist Hasanboy Dusmatov in the final of Men’s Light Flyweight 49kg category at the Jakarta Asian Games 2018. It is India’s only boxing gold at the 18th Asiad. With this, Panghal became the 8th Indian boxer to claim the gold medal at the Asian Games. Beside him, Vikas Krishan Yadav (75kg) settled for the bronze in the ongoing event. In the 2014 Asian Games, M.C. Mary Kom was the lone gold medallist for India. While, Vijender Singh and Vikas Krishan were the last set of male gold medallists for India at the 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games.

9.      Japanese swimmer Rikako Ikee (18) became the first female athlete to be named the Most Valuable Player (MVP) at Asian Games after she scooped an unprecedented six gold medals in the Jakarta pool. She also won two silvers. With this, Ikee also became the first female athlete in any sport to win six gold medals at a single Asian Games. Only North Korean shooter So Gin-man, who won 7 golds and a silver at 1982 New Delhi Games, has won more titles at one Asian Games. Beside this, Ikee also became the 4th Japanese athlete to win the MVP award since its inception at the 1998 Bangkok Games.

10.  In Men’s hockey, Indian men’s national field hockey team defeated arch rival Pakistan 2-1 to clinch a Bronze at the 2018 Jakarta Asian Games. Akashdeep hit the first goal and 2nd was scored by Harmanpreet. Pakistan’s lone goal came from a counter-attack scored by Muhammad Atiq. With this, India ranked at 8th position with 69 medals – 15 gold, 24 Silver and 30 Bronze – at the 18th Asian Games. China leads the medals tally followed by Japan.

11.  Singapore is currently holding the Chair of ASEAN. There, the 6th East Asia Summit- Economic Ministers’ Meeting (EAS-EMM) and 15th India-ASEAN Economic Ministers’ Meeting (AEM) was held in September 1, 2018. It was attended by Economic Ministers from 10 ASEAN countries and their 8 dialogue partners – Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, the Russian Federation and the United States. The meeting recognized the importance of ongoing work to maximize the opportunities of, and address the challenges presented by, the digital economy and the rise of regional and global value chains, as part of their efforts to promote economic growth and integration in the region. It was announced in the Singapore meeting that the next ASEAN-India Business Summit will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in November 2018, which will be followed by the 4th India-ASEAN Dialogue Partner Expo and Summit scheduled for 21-23 February 2019, in New Delhi.

12.  Rani Rampal, the Indian women hockey captain, was India’s flag-bearer at the closing ceremony of the 18th Asian Games 2018. India ended their Asian Games 2018 campaign with the highest medal tally at the tournament ever, with a total of 69 medals which includes 15 gold, 24 silver and 30 bronze medals. In addition to local artists and a Chinese segment, the South Korean boybands Super Junior and iKon, and Indian singer Sidharth Slathia performed in the closing ceremony. More than 10,000 athletes gave their best at the Asian Games 2018, winning medals for their respective countries. 465 gold medals were won by the athletes of 28 countries. 37 out of 45 participating nations were able to win medals at the Asian Games 2018. China finished on top of the medal tally with 132 gold medals. Javelin thrower Neeraj Chopra was India’s flag-bearer at the opening ceremony. In it, the Games flag for the 2022 Asian Games received by Mayor of Hangzhou Xu Liyi.

13.  The book “Moving On, Moving Forward: A year in Office” has been authored by Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu, which was recently released by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The book is based on Naidu’s tenure as Vice-President and Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He talks about his vision in the chapter ‘Retired from politics but not from public life’. As Chairman, he also records his disappointment over the first two sessions of the House he presided over. The 245-page book with 7 chapters deals with Naidu’s focussed engagement on four key issues — unrealised demographic dividend, need for an effective ecosystem for farmers to thrive, scientific advancements to better the life of people and public awareness about rich Indian heritage.
14.  The World Coconut Day (WCD) is observed every year on September 2 to enhance coconut farming with focus on productivity and product diversification. The day is also celebrated to commemorate the formation day of Asian Pacific Coconut Community (APCC). In India, the day is celebrated every year under the aegis of Coconut Development Board (CDB) in various coconut growing states across the country. The 2018 theme is “Coconut for Good Health, Wealth & Wellnessis”. APCC is an inter-governmental organisation of 18 member countries mandated to promote, coordinate and harmonize coconut developmental activities of the Asian Pacific region to achieve maximum economic development. India is one of the founder members of APCC. India is one of the founder members of APCC and stands first in global coconut production and productivity. The annual coconut production of India is 2437.80 crore and the productivity is 11616 coconuts per hectare.

15.  According to Reserve Bank of India (RBI)’s annual data, Mauritius accounted for the largest source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into India in the financial year FY18 followed by Singapore. The data shows that the total India’s FDI stood at $37.36 billion in the FY18, which is a marginal rise over the $36.31 billion recorded in the previous fiscal FY17. The provisional data for the financial year ended March revealed that FDI into the manufacturing sector witnessed a substantial decline to $7.06 billion, as against $11.97 billion in the year-ago period. However, FDI into communication services rose to $8.8 billion in 2017-18 as compared to $5.8 billion. The inflows into retail and wholesale trade also shot up to $4.47 billion as against $2.77 billion, while financial services sector too witnessed a rise in inflows to $4.07 billion from $3.73 billion in the previous year.

16.  The major Indian ocean-wide tsunami mock exercise (drill) “IOWave18” has started from September 4, which is being organized by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The purpose of the 2-day exercise is to increase tsunami preparedness, evaluate response capabilities in each state and improve coordination throughout the region. It will also enhance tsunami preparedness at the community level. The IOWave18 exercise will simulate Indian Ocean countries being put in a tsunami warning situation and require the National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC), i.e., INCOIS in case of India, and the National and Local Disaster Management Offices (NDMO/LDMO) to implement their Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). India along with 23 other nations is participating in the tsunami mock exercise that would involve evacuation of thousands of people from coastal areas in over half a dozen states.

17.  Nepal is hosting the International Women Entrepreneurs Summit (IWES) 2018 in Kathmandu with theme “Equality begins with Economic Empowerment” from September 3. The main purpose of the 3-day summit is to bring together achievers, women business leaders, professionals, international service providers, resource organizations, experts, government representatives and other stakeholders with a focus on innovative economic transformation through discussions and collaborations. The delegates from the SAARC, ASEAN, EU, Africa, Arab countries and China participating in the summit. The event is organised by the South Asian Women Development Forum (SAWDF).

18.  The joint military exercise “Rapid Trident 2018″ has started in the western Ukrainian village of Starychi, which will continue from September 2 to 15. It was launched by Ukraine with the United States and a string of other NATO countries as tensions with Russia remain high over the Kremlin-backed insurgency in the country’s east. The aim of the exercise is to practice countering armed aggression in conditions of the hybrid war. The exercise is composed of a multinational, brigade-level, computer-assisted command post exercise i.e. integrated with a battalion-level field training exercise, and a platoon-level situational training exercise. The Rapid Trident 2018 started a week before Russia holds its biggest military exercise ” Vostok-2018″ since the Cold War, in the east of the country and with the participation of China and Mongolia. Approx 2,200 soldiers from 14 nations are participating in the exercise.

19.  The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has recently announced to launch Mars Mission “HOPE”, which is expected to be launched by 2020. Upon launch, it will become the first mission to Mars by any Arab or Muslim country. The aim of the mission is to enrich the capabilities of Emirati engineers and to increase human knowledge about the Martian atmosphere. The Hope probe will study the atmospheric layers of Mars in detail and will provide data to study the causes of the corrosion of its surface that has made it impossible for water to exist on the planet. The project will also provide insights about the weather on the Red Planet. It will observe weather phenomena such as dust storms and changes in temperature and how the atmosphere interacts with topography, from the highest volcano peaks to ice sheets to the vast deserts and the deepest canyons. It is expected to reach Mars in 2021, which coincides with the 50th anniversary of the UAE’s formation.

20.  The 2018 edition of Maralal International Camel Derby event was held at Maralal town in Kenya. It is best Kenya’s best known and most prestigious camel race that attracts both local and international competitors. The event is a major draw for spectators as well as racers. It is an entertaining festival of fun and local competition that brings this small desert town to life.

21.  Dr Arif Alvi has been elected as the new President of Pakistan and will take the oath of the office on September 9. He will succeed Mamnoon Hussain. Dr. Alvi is a close ally of Prime Minister Imran Khan and one of the founding members of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf party.

22.  The joint maritime naval exercise “SLINEX-2018” will be held between Indian & Sri Lankan navy at Trincomalee, Sri Lanka from September 7 to 13. The exercise which was previously held biannually has been converted to an annual event from year 2018 to enhance cooperation in the maritime domain and to further strengthen mutual trust and interoperability between the two navies. The exercise to be conducted in two phases, namely the Harbour and Sea Phase, will involve conduct of joint training, exchange of expertise, helicopter and maritime patrol aircraft operations, search and rescue, and maneuvers at sea. It would also involve sports fixtures and cultural events which would provide an opportunity for personnel from both navies to learn from each other and to build individual bonds of friendship and camaraderie.

23.  India and France has recently signed an agreement to collaborate on ISRO’s first human spaceflight programme “Gaganyaan”. It was announcement by French space agency president Jean-Yves Le Gall at the 6th edition of the Bengaluru Space Expo. The first step under the MoU is to exchange specialists to work on (space) medicine. The ambit of the cooperation includes giving ISRO access to space hospital facilities in France and combining expertise of the two space agencies in fields of space medicine, astronaut health monitoring, life support, radiation protection, space debris protection and personal hygiene system. The two space agencies also plan to work on Mars, Venus and asteroids. The aim of the Gaganyaan mission is to send a 3-member crew to space for a period of 5 to 7 days by 2022. Its objectives are to inspire youth, increase science and technology levels in the country, improve industrial growth, develop technology for social benefits, etc.

24.  Justice Ranjan Gogoi, the son of former Assam chief minister Keshab Chandra Gogoi, will become the 46th Chief Justice of India (CJI), after the current CJI Dipak Misra retires on October 2. He will have tenure of 13 months – till November 17, 2019. As per convention, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court has to be appointed as the next CJI. Therefore, once the recommendation by CJI Misra is approved, Justice Gogoi will become the first CJI from North-Eastern states. His appointment is crucial as it comes at a time when Assam is preparing to release a final National Register of Citizens (NRC), possibly by the end of the year 2018. Justice Gogoi was one of the four senior-most judges of the court who had called an unprecedented press conference this January, when they had publicly raised concerns about the administration of the court and the formation of benches for the allocation of important cases. He is also one of 11 judges in the Supreme Court who have disclosed their assets.

25.  The Indo-Kazakhstan joint Army exercise ‘KAZIND 2018’ will be conducted between the Indian and Kazakhstan Army from 10 to 23 Sep 2018 in Otar region, Kazakhstan. This is the 3rd joint military exercise between the two countries which have a history of extensive cooperation in the defense arena. The aim of the 14-days exercise is to build and promote bilateral Army to Army relations and exchange skills and experiences between Kazakhstan Army and the Indian Army. The exercise will also serve as a platform for exchange of drills and procedures. The conduct of the joint exercise will set the stage for greater defence cooperation and consequently will manifest in stronger ties between the two great nations.

26.  The Vice President of India, M. Venkaiah Naidu will address the 2nd World Hindu Congress (WHC) 2018, which is scheduled to be held in Chicago, United States on September 7 to 9. Apart from addressing the congress, Mr. Naidu will also participate in a programme organized by 14 Telugu Associations of the US at Hindu Temple of Greater Chicago. He will also participate in bilateral discussions with several world leaders, who are attending this event, on the sidelines of this Congress. The WHC is a global platform for Hindus to connect, share ideas, inspire one another, and impact the common good. It offers Hindus an opportunity to introspect towards improvement and tap into their collective resources to seek tangible solutions to the most pressing issues of this age. The global event also marks the commemoration of 125th Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda’s Historic Speech at the Parliament of the World’s Religions in 1893.

27.  Recently, the Delta Force has celebrated its 25th Raising Day on September 6 in the memory of those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty. It is the counter insurgency force of the Indian Army that has been instrumental in eliminating terrorism from the Chenab Valley and ushering peace in the region. Till date, the Force has been honoured with 1,380 Gallantry Awards including one Ashok Chakra, five Kirti Chakras and 46 Shaurya Chakras

28.  In the first round of the ‘two-plus-two dialogue’ in New Delhi, India and the United States signed military communications pact “COMCASA” , which will give India access to advanced new defence systems like armed drones and will enable the Indian armed forces to exploit existing US-origin platforms much more efficiently. COMCASA is an India-specific version of the Communication and Information on Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA). It comes into force immediately & is valid for a period 10 years. The term “COMCASA” stands for Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) and is one of the four foundational agreements that the U.S. signs with allies and close partners to facilitate interoperability between militaries and sale of high end technology. COMCASA allows India to procure transfer specialised equipment for encrypted communications for US origin military platforms like the C-17, C-130 and P-8Is.

29.  In a landmark judgement on September 6, the Supreme Court of India (SCI) struck down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and decriminalized homosexuality. The five-judge Constitution Bench, led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) Dipak Misra unanimously scrapped a 156-year old colonial-era law banning gay sex that was punishable by a jail sentence of up to 10 years. Thereby, this verdict is the beginning of a journey towards greater dignity, equality and liberty. However, the court held that Section 377 will apply to “unnatural” sexual acts like bestiality. Sexual acts without consent continue to be a crime under the Section. IPC Section 377 came into force in 1861 during the British rule of India (modelled on the Buggery Act of 1533) which criminalised sexual activities “against the order of nature”, including homosexual activities.

30.  The Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention (MGISC-2018) will be organized by the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation in New Delhi from September 29 to mark the beginning of the 150th birth anniversary celebrations of Mahatma Gandhi. It will be a 4-day international conference that will bring together Sanitation Ministers and other leaders in WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) from around the world. The purpose of the Convention is to share sanitation success stories and lessons from the participating countries. It will culminate on October 2nd, Gandhi Jayanti, which is also celebrated as the Swachh Bharat Diwas. Several mass mobilisation events and campaigns are being planned across the States in the run up to this Day.

31.  India is hosting the 4th edition of World Summit on Accreditation (WOSA 2018) in New Delhi from September 7 with theme “Challenges and Opportunities in Outcome-Based Accreditation”. The focus of the 3-day summit is on challenges and opportunities in outcome-based accreditation. The WOSA 2018 will bring about new ideas and help in establishing new trends of identifying opportunities and challenges in professional education world-wide. The Summit is a biennial event organized by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) which provides platform to its stakeholders to share their knowledge and information on accreditation.

32.  Indian sprinter Hima Das has been officially named as the Sports Ambassador of Assam for her recent achievements in the 2018 Jakarta Asian Games and IAAF World U-20 Championship 2018 at a function held at Srimanta Sankardev International Auditorium, Guwahati. Beside this, Chief Minister Sarbanand Sonowal handed over a cheque worth Rs 1.6 crore to Hima and also offered her a job in the senior category of Sports and Youth Welfare Department. He also announced to develop 500 village stadiums in the state. In recently concluded Asian Games, she set a national record by clocking 51.00 to qualify for the 400m final and bettered it with 50.79 to clinch silver. She went on to win silver in the mixed 4x400m relay and bagged gold in the women’s 4x400m relay. Apart from this, she has already scripted history by becoming the first Indian woman athlete to clinch a gold in a track event at the IAAF World U-20 Athletics Championships 2018 in Finland.

33.  Akshay Kumar, the National Award-winning actor, has been made the first Honorary Ambassador of the Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial Foundation. It is the social organisation founded by the family of India’s second Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri.

34.  The Chagos Archipelago (or Chagos Islands) is a group of 7 atolls consists of more than 60 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean about 500 km south of the Maldives archipelago. The sovereignty over the Islands is disputed between Mauritius and the United Kingdom (UK). Recently, it is in news because India has supported Mauritius in International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the issue of de-colonisation of the Chagos Archipelago, which is home to Diego Garcia — the key military base of the U.K. and the U.S. in the Indian Ocean. India told ICJ that the historical survey of facts indicates that the Chagos Archipelago throughout the pre- and post-colonial era has been part of the Mauritian territory. These islands came under the colonial administration of the UK as part of Mauritian territory. Of the 22 countries which are giving their legal opinion at ICJ, the UK is supported by the US, Australia and Israel, while Mauritius is being supported by 17 countries, including India.

35.  The Bogibeel Bridge is a combined road and rail bridge over the Brahmaputra River in Assam, which is expected to complete at the end of 2018. Sited about 17 km downstream of Dibrugarh town, the 4.94km bridge will facilitate road and rail connectivity between the north and south banks of the Brahmaputra in the eastern part of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The bridge is 32m above the water level of the Brahmaputra and is fashioned on a bridge that links Sweden and Denmark. It has three lane roads on top and double line rail below. Upon completion, Bogibeel will be the longest rail-cum-road bridge in India and 2nd longest bridge over the Brahmaputra after Dhola-Sadiya Bridge which is a road bridge of length 9.15 km.

36.  The Government of India (GoI) has constituted a committee, headed by former Reserve Bank of India governor Bimal Jalan, to select the next Chief Economic Advisor (CEA). Apart from Jalan, secretary of the department of personnel and training C Chandramouli and economic affairs secretary Subhash Chandra Garg will be members of the panel which will vet the applications received and conduct the interviews. Recently, Arvind Subramanian resigned from CEA post before his tenure ends in May 2019 citing personal reasons. He has since joined as a visiting professor at Harvard University. The CEA is under the direct charge of the Minister of Finance and is the ex-officio cadre controlling authority of the Indian Economic Service (IES).

37.  The Indian Air Force has successfully carried out the first-ever mid-air refuelling of the indigenously build fighter aircraft Tejas MK 1 with an IL-78 MKI tanker of the 78 Sqn. The feat was achieved when 1,900 kg of fuel was transferred from the mid-air refuelling Russian-built tanker IL78 to the Tejas LSP8 at an altitude of 20,000 feet. The tanker aircraft was launched from Agra, while the fighter was launched from Gwalior. The specially modified Tejas aircraft carried out a series of test profiles including a ‘Dry Contact’ with the tanker. The IAF IL78, piloted by Wing Commander Siddarth Singh, accomplished the task with designers from HAL and Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) closely monitoring system parameters from the ground station at Gwalior. With this first trial, the aircraft gets much closer to the important battle-ready tag, called the FOC or the final operational clearance. Beside this, India has also joined an elite group of countries having air-to-air refuelling capacity for military planes.

38.  Software major Infosys has recently signed a 3-year partnership with the Australian Open as its official digital innovation partner. The partnership is about creating new ways of experiencing the Australian Open. As per agreement, Infosys will leverage its expertise in emerging technologies like Big Data and Analytics, Artificial Intelligence as well as Virtual and Augmented Reality, to provide unique, innovative and engaging experiences for fans. However, the financial details of the deal were, not disclosed. Tennis Australia is the governing body of tennis in Australia, promoting and facilitating participation the sport at all levels, as well as conducting national and international tournaments and events.

39.  The Kempegowda International Airport (KIA) in Bengaluru is set to become the first airport in Asia to use face recognition as the boarding procedure for passengers to board flights and move across different sections of the airport. For this, the agreement was signed between Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL) & Portuguese software firm ‘Vision-Box’ in Lisbon to launch paperless biometric self-boarding technology. The first implementation milestone at Kempegowda will be completed in the first quarter of 2019, with Jet Airways, Air Asia and SpiceJet passengers as first users. The goal of the programme is to simplify the journey by making it paperless from registration to boarding. Biometric technology will identify passengers by their face as they move across the airport. The technology will avoid stops and the repeated presentation of boarding passes, passports or other physical identity documents.

40.  The World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) is observed every year on September 10 to provide worldwide commitment and action to prevent suicides. It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that over 800,000 people die by suicide each year across the world – that means one person every 40 seconds. Thus, the day aims to open up the conversations and help those in the darkness. The 2018 theme “Working Together to Prevent Suicide” highlights the most essential ingredient for effective global suicide prevention- collaboration.

41.  The first-ever joint military exercise of BIMSTEC, named MILEX-18, has started at Aundh Military Station in Pune from September 10 to enhance cooperation in dealing with the challenge of terrorism in the region. The aim of the week-long anti-terror exercise is to boost inter-operability among the forces and exchanging best practices to contain terror related activities. The exercise will include training in search-and-cordon operations and handling and neutralisation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) among other things. The militaries of BIMSTEC member nations barring Nepal are participating in the exercise. The BIMSTEC is a regional grouping comprising Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal. The grouping accounts for 22% of the global population & has a combined gross domestic product of USD 2.8 trillion.

42.  The 2018 Global Summit on Climate Action will be held at San Francisco in California, United States from September 12 to 14, 2018. The summit is a platform that brings together several decision makers and officials, as well as people, from around the world to discuss proposals for future action on climate change. It will serve as a starting point for broader and more effective global commitments, to reduce the impacts of climate change and achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement. It will also promote climate action in five key areas: Healthy Energy Systems, Inclusive Economic Growth, Sustainable Communities, Land and Ocean Stewardship and Transformative Climate Investments. The Summit will culminate in a call to action to nations to step up their ambition under the Paris Agreement, and cut emissions on a science-based trajectory that limits warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius.

43.  India and France have signed an implementation agreement on Mobilise Your City (MYC) programme in New Delhi on September 7. The aim of MYC is to support three pilot cities – Nagpur, Kochi and Ahmedabad – in their efforts to reduce their Green House Gas (GHG) emissions related to urban transport by implementing urban mobility plans at local level and to help India at national level to improve their sustainable transport policy. The MYC is part of an international initiative which is supported by the French and the German Governments and was launched at 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) meeting in December 2015. The details of the project activities will be worked out by AFD in consultation with Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and the three partner cities including institutions such as the respective Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) for Smart Cities, the Municipal Corporations and any transport authority or transport related SPV.

44.  The 14th edition of the joint military exercise “Yudh Abhyas 2018” will be conducted between India and United States in the foothills of Himalayas at Chaubattia in Uttarakhand from September 16 to 29. The exercise will simulate a scenario where both nations will work together in counter insurgency and counter terrorism environment in mountainous terrain under United Nation charter. The two week exercise will witness participation of about 350 personnel of the US Army and similar strength of the Indian Army. It will witness a Division Headquarter based Command Post Exercise, an Infantry Battalion carrying out Field Training Exercise and discussions on issues of mutual interest by experts of both countries. The training will culminate with a final validation exercise in which troops of both countries will jointly carry out an operation against terrorists in a fictitious but realistic setting.

45.  Actor R Madhavan will host the National Geographic’s new series ‘Mega Icons’, which examines the success stories of five prominent personalities. It is scheduled to premier on September 24. The five-part television series will feature episodes on former Indian President APJ Abdul Kalam, movie star and politician Kamal Haasan, Nobel laureate the Dalai Lama, Indian cricketer Virat Kohli and the first woman Indian Police Service officer, Kiran Bedi. Each episode would be a journey into the life of an iconic personality, with help of not only intimate interviews with the icons and their families but also through research and analysis by experts.

46.  The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has recently re-commissioned an upgraded version of nuclear research reactor ‘Apsara-U’ with a higher capacity, which was shut down permanently in 2009 for revamp. The indigenously made reactor ‘Apsara-U’ uses plate type dispersion fuel elements made of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). By virtue of higher neutron flux, this reactor will increase indigenous production or radio-isotopes for medical application by about 50% and would also be extensively used for research in nuclear physics, material science and radiation shielding. This development has re-emphasized the capability of Indian scientists and Engineers to build, complex facilities for health care, science education and research. Apsara was the Asia’s first research reactor that was made operational in Trombay campus of BARC on 4th August 1956. The design of the pool-type reactor using enriched uranium fuel was conceptualised in 1955 by Dr Homi Bhabha himself. The name ‘Apsara’ was coined by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

47.  NITI Aayog has collaborated with Intel and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to set up a Model International Center for Transformative Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI). The collaboration aims to bring together fundamental and applied research, innovation and technology development to solve important problems.The ICTAI will work towards developing and deploying artificial intelligence based research projects in critical domains such as health care, agriculture, smart cities and mobility. The initiative is part of NITI Aayog’s National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence discussion paper that focuses on establishing ICTAI through private sector collaboration.

48.  The 13th edition of Indo-Mongolian joint military exercise “Nomadic Elephant 2018” has commenced at Mongolian Armed Forces (MAF) Five Hills Training Area in Ullanbaatar on September 10. During the 12 days long exercise, both sides will jointly train, plan and execute a series of well developed tactical drills for neutralisation of likely threats that may be encountered in urban warfare scenario. Experts from both sides will also hold detailed discussions to share their experience on varied topics for mutual benefits. Exercise Nomadic Elephant is an annual, bilateral exercise since 2006 which is designed to strengthen the partnership between Indian Army and Mongolian Armed Forces. The exercise will see them improve their tactical and technical skills in joint counter insurgency and counter terrorist operations in rural and urban scenario under United Nations mandate.

49.  On September 11, India, Iran and Afghanistan held their first tripartite meeting in Kabul during which implementation of the Chabahar port project and a host of other issues discussed. The Indian delegation was led by Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale while the Iranian team was headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araghchi. Afghan Deputy Foreign Minister Hekmat Khalil Karzai chaired the meeting. The meeting focused on consolidating economic cooperation, including Chabahar, as well as enhancing cooperation on counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, and continuing support to the peace and reconciliation process that is led and owned by Afghanistan. As per officials, the three sides agreed to hold the next round of consultation in 2019 at an appropriate time in India.The Chabahar port is being considered a gateway to golden opportunities for trade by India, Iran and Afghanistan with central Asian countries besides ramping up trade among the three countries in the wake of Pakistan denying transit access to New Delhi.

50.  The National Rail and Transportation Institute (NRTI), which is India’s first railway university, has recently started operations in Vadodara, Gujarat. This institute is located in the National Academy of Indian Railway (NAIR) having about 55 acres of campus. It is India’s first university focused on transport-related education, multidisciplinary research and training. NRTI will offer multi-disciplinary programmes designed to cater to the needs of India’s transportation sector. The Institute will follow a demand-driven curriculum, while aligning with industry priorities. To ensure best-in-class of education, NRTI will follow a highly experiential and unique inter-disciplinary pedagogical approach, that incorporates the latest technologies such as live classrooms and online programs, and is delivered by high-quality faculty with global exposure. It is established as a deemed to be university under de-novo category. NRTI is a brainchild of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, currently offering its flagship undergraduate programmes in Transportation Technology and Management.

51.  The second edition of the 10-day Nepal-China joint military exercise “Sagarmatha Friendship-2018” will be held at Chengdu, the capital of China’s southwestern Sichuan Province, from September 17. The aim of the exercise is to share expertise in disaster management and to fight terrorism, among others. This will reduce Nepal’s dependence on India and allow China to get a firm foothold in the sub-continental drama. This comes at a time when Nepal refuses to participate in the first-ever BIMSTEC military exercise “MILEX-18”, which has started in India from September 10.

52.  Veteran BJP leader L K Advani has been renominated as the chairman of the Lok Sabha Ethics Committee by Speaker Sumitra Mahajan.The Committee examines complaints relating to unethical conduct by members of Parliament. It is also free to take up suo motu investigation into the matters relating to ethics and unethical conduct by a member, wherever necessary, and make such recommendations, as it may deem fit. P Karunakaran has also been renominated as chairman of the Committee on Absence of Members from the Sittings of the House. While, Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank will head the Committee on Government Assurances, it said. Chandrakant B Khaire was renominated as chairman of the Committee on Papers Laid on the Table, and Dilipkumar Mansukhlal Gandhi as the chairman of the Committee on Subordinate Legislation.

53.  Indian pacer Jhulan Goswami has become the first bowler in women’s cricket to pick 300 international wickets. She achieved this feet after reaching the landmark figure in India’s 9-wicket win over Sri Lanka on September 11. Earlier, Indian Cricketer Mithali Raj became the most capped player in the history of Women’s ODI cricket.

54.  The Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) has recently launched an indigenously designed and developed India’s first 205T Electric Drive Rear Dump Truck (Model BH205-E) in its Mysuru plant, with an objective of strengthening the ‘Make in India’ initiative. This new rear dump truck is expected to address the growing demand for higher capacity equipment in the mining industry. BH205E is powered by Tier -II emission compliant Modular Common Rail Electronic Engine with 2300 HP. The AC drive system has been engineered to provide exceptional haul road performance with reduced maintenance. The Dump Truck is environmental friendly in relation to mechanical drive due to its superior efficiency. The truck weighs 335 tonnes when fully loaded but it is easily manoeuvrable with power-steering and short turning radius. It has been developed for use in the project of Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL), Singrauli.

55.  As per culture study survey by US-based multi-national workforce management firm Kronos Incorporated, India leads the way as the world’s hardest working country with 69% of full-time employees are happy with 5-day workweek. Indians stated that they would work five days a week even if they had the option to work fewer days for the same pay. Mexico was the 2nd-highest at 43% of workers, followed by the US at 27%. The study found workers in the United Kingdom, France and Australia were least content with the standard five-day workweek. According to a survey If pay remained constant, one-third of global workers felt their ideal workweek would last four days (34%), while 20% said they would work 3 days a week. For this study, the survey was carried out amongst 2, 700 full and part-time employees living in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Mexico, the UK and the US. It was conducted by Future Workplace on behalf of Kronos Incorporated between July 31 to August 9, 2018. The study also found that in the matter of overtime, US leads the way with 49% clocking more than 40 hours each week. This was followed by India (44%), Mexico (40%) and Germany (38%).

56.  India’s first tribal circuit tourism project under the Swadesh Darshan scheme has launched at Gangrel in Chhattisgarh on September 13. It covers 13 sites in Chhattisgarh which are Jashpur, Kunkuri, Mainpat, Kamleshpur, Maheshpur, Kurdar, Sarodadadar, Gangrel, Kondagaon, Nathiya Nawagaon, Jagdalpur, Chitrakoot and Tirthgarh. Under the tribal circuit theme of the scheme the Ministry of Tourism has sanctioned 4 projects to Nagaland, Telangana and Chhattisgarh for Rs. 380 crore. Major components sanctioned in the tribal circuit theme include eco log huts, craft haats, souvenir shops or kiosk, tourist reception and facilitation centres, open amphitheatre, tribal interpretation centres, workshop centres, tourist amenities centres, last mile connectivity, wayside amenities, viewpoints, nature trails, solar illuminations, signages and solid waste management among others. The Swadesh Darshan scheme was launched in 2014 -15 for development of thematic circuits in the country in a planned and prioritized manner.

57.  The National Hindi Divas (NHD) is celebrated every year on September 14 in India. On this day, in 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India had adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of India under Article 343. In all, there are 22 Scheduled languages of India, of which, two are officially used at Union government of India level: Hindi and English.

58.  The Supreme Court has appointed a 3-member committee headed by D.K. Jain, a former judge of the court, to probe the harrowing arrest and alleged torture of former space scientist Nambi Narayanan in the ‘ISRO spy scandal’ that turned out to be fake. A 3-judge Bench led by Chief Justice of India CJI) Dipak Misra also awarded Mr. Narayanan Rs. 50 lakh in compensation for the mental cruelty he suffered all these years. The committee will explore “ways and means” to bring justice to the former space scientist besides probing the officers who caused the “harrowing” incidents. The Centre would take care of the committee’s facilities and expenses.

59.  Under article 124 of the constitution, President Ram Nath Kovind has appointed Justice Ranjan Gogoi as the 46th Chief Justice of India (CJI). He will assume office after the current CJI Dipak Misra retires on October 2. He will have tenure of 13 months – till November 17, 2019. Currently, Justice Gogoi is heading the Bench monitoring the sensitive Assam National Register of Citizens (NRC) case. Thus, Justice Gogoi will become the first CJI from North-Eastern states. He is the son of former Assam chief minister Keshab Chandra Gogoi. Justice Gogoi was one of the four senior-most judges of the court who had called an unprecedented press conference this January, when they had publicly raised concerns about the administration of the court and the formation of benches for the allocation of important cases. He is also one of 11 judges in the Supreme Court who have disclosed their assets.

60.  India has been ranked 130 among 189 countries in the latest Human Development Index (HDI) report 2018, which is released by the United Nations Development Programme. As per report, between 1990 and 2017, India’s HDI value saw a 50% increase from 0.427 to 0.640, an indicator of the country’s remarkable achievement in lifting millions of people out of poverty. During the period, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by nearly 11 years, with the average years of children staying in school increased by 4.7 years. India’s gross per capita income increased by a staggering 266.6% between 1990 and 2017. The HDI is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. Norway, Switzerland, Australia, Ireland and Germany led the ranking, while Niger, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Chad and Burundi have the lowest scores in the HDI’s measurement of national achievements in health, education and income.

61.  The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) has commissioned indigenously built patrol vessel ‘Vijaya’ in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It is capable of carrying limited pollution response equipment to contain oil spill in sea. The 98-metre Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV) was designed and built by Larsen & Toubro India at Kattupalli shipyard and is fitted with advanced navigation and communication equipment, sensors and machinery. The ship is designed to carry one twin engine helicopter and four high speed boats, including two inflatable boats for boarding, search and rescue, law enforcement and maritime patrol operations. The vessel is fitted with a 30 mm gun and will be fitted with a 12.7 mm gun with a Fire Control System (FCS). It will be based at Paradip Port, Odisha and be deployed in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) for surveillance and other duties.

62.  India’s first underwater robotic drone “EyeROV TUNA” was launched and handed over to Kochi-based DRDO lab “Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL)”. The drone can send real-time videos of ships and other underwater structures to help with their repair and maintenance. It will be used by NPOL for research and development activities which in turn would result in a commercial product for defence purposes. The robotic drone can be navigated up to a depth of 50 meters to take real-time HD video images to examine ship hulls or undersea cables or bridge moorings and can eliminate the need for costlier and riskier manual inspection by divers. The first commercial Remotedly Operated Vehicle (ROV)/underwater drone “EYEROVTUNA” was developed by EyeROV Technologies, a company incubating at the Kalamassery-based Maker Village which is said to be the largest hardware incubator in the country.

63.  The Rajasthan government has recently inaugurated the first lion safari of the state at Nahargarh Biological Park (NBP), which is located about 12 km from Jaipur on the Jaipur-Delhi highway. The visitors will be able to see lions in their natural habitat in the park spanning 38 hectares and enclosed by a fence. They will be taken on a nearly 4 km safari in a closed bus. Though, the Safari will be thrown open for the tourists from October 2018.

64.  The International Day of Democracy is observed every year on September 15 to highlight the values of freedom and respect for human rights as essential elements of democracy. It is an opportunity to look for ways to invigorate democracy and seek answers to the systemic challenges it faces. This includes tackling economic and political inequalities, making democracies more inclusive by bringing the young and marginalized into the political system, and making democracies more innovative and responsive to emerging challenges such as migration and climate change. The 2018 theme is “Democracy under Strain: Solutions for a Changing World”.

65.  India’s first exclusive and certified ‘Dog Park’ has come up in Hyderabad, which is spread over 1.3 acres. The park has been developed by the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) at a cost of Rs. 1.1 crore on a site which was earlier a dump yard. The park has dog training and exercise equipment, splash pool, two lawns, an amphitheatre, loo cafĂ©, separate enclosures for big and small dogs among other facilities. According to a survey, there are about 2.5 lakh pet owners in the West Zone and the Central Zone limits of the city which are nearer to the park. Public can bring in their pet dogs and use the facilities in the park. The park is certified by Kennel Club of India and would be inaugurated within 10 days.

66.  Moutaz Mousa Abdallah has been sworn-in as the new Prime Minister of Sudan at the presidential palace in Khartoum on September 15, 2018. Mousa Abdallah is also holding the finance portfolio in a bid to revive the country’s ailing economy. He succeeded Bakri Hassan Saleh, who will retain the post of first vice president. Sudan has been grappling with an acute foreign exchange shortage and inflation above 65% for several months, which prompted President Omar al-Bashir to sack the previous cabinet to fix the situation.

67.  On September 16, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully launched the NovaSAR and S1-4 earth observation satellites of U.K from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-C42 (PSLV) injected the satellites into orbit 17 minutes and 45 seconds after lift off and placed them in a sun synchronous orbit at a height of 583 km from the earth. The satellites, both weighing 889 kg, have been developed by UK-based Surrey Satellite Technologies Ltd (SSTL). NovaSAR is intended to be used for forest mapping, land use and ice cover monitoring, flood & disaster monitoring. On the other hand, S1-4 will be used for surveying resources, environment monitoring, urban management and disaster monitoring. The mission is a commercial arrangement between the company and Antrix Corporation Limited, which is the commercial wing of ISRO. This was the 44th flight of the PSLV and the 12th launch of a core-alone version of the PSLV.

68.  ISRO chairman Dr. K Sivan has launched an S–band Polarimetry Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota spaceport, Andhra Pradesh on September 16, 2018. This Radar was indigenously developed by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Bangalore under Technology Transfer from ISRO. This is the 7th Radar manufactured in the country under “Make in India” Concept. The Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) is used for the observation of the weather system up to a range of 500 km and helps in early warning of severe weather events. The DWR provides detailed information on a storm’s internal wind flow and structure, while conventional radars are able to track and predict cyclones. The polarimetric capability of the DWR will significantly improve the accuracy of rainfall estimation leading to accurate and timely flash flood warnings.

69.  Dr. Subramanya Jaishankar, the former foreign secretary of India, has joined the board of the US-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF). Currently, he is the president of Global Corporate Affairs for the Tata Group. USISPF is a forum founded with the objective of promoting a strategic relationship between the US and India, and finding common ground on important issues facing businesses in both countries. The headquarters of USISPF is located at Washington.

70.  The Government of India (GoI) has proposed to merge state-owned Vijaya Bank, Dena Bank and Bank of Baroda (BoB) to create India’s third largest lender as parts of reforms in the public sector banking segment. The decision was taken at the meeting of a ministerial panel headed by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley which oversees merger proposals of state-owned banks. One of the reasons behind the choice of these banks was perhaps the fact that all three use the same core banking system—Finacle from Infosys—making the task of merging the technology platforms and back-ends relatively easier. Now, the boards of the three banks will consider the proposal. The combined lending entity will have a strong presence across the nation with more than 34% of low-cost deposits, a capital buffer of nearly 12% and a business book of Rs 14.82 lakh crore. Bank of Baroda is the biggest of the three with Rs 10.29 lakh crore of total business, followed by Vijaya Bank at Rs 2.79 lakh crore and Dena Bank at Rs 1.72 lakh crore.

71.  Germany has recently rolled out the world’s first hydrogen-powered trains that only emit steam and water. These bright blue Coradia iLint trains are built by French TGV-maker Alstom, which are costlier than diesel powered trains but eco-friendly. The new trains are equipped with a hydrogen tank and fuel cells on the roof and will produce electricity by combining water and hydrogen. The company revealed that the excess energy produced will be stored in ion-lithium batteries. The green trains can travel 600 miles (1,000km) on a single tank of hydrogen, similar to the range of diesel trains. The two Coradia iLint trains will replace conventional diesel engines on the 100 km route that links German towns- Cuxhaven and Buxtehude. Germany will introduce 14 other hydrogen train in the Lower Saxony region of the country by 2021.

72.  The third and final book of Vineet Bajpai’s Harappa trilogy “Kashi: Secret of the Black Temple” has recently launched in New Delhi. The book tells an intriguing story of a lost civilisation. The three books in the series combine mythology, history, fantasy, crime and the modern-day thriller element. The first two books are “Harappa: Curse of the Blood River” and “Pralay: The Great Deluge”. Bajpai is the founder and chairman of the Magnon Group, a digital and advertising agency.

73.  The International Day for the preservation of the Ozone Layer is observed every year on September 16 to commemorate the date of signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 on substances that deplete the Ozone layer. It is mainly intended to spread awareness of the depletion of the Ozone Layer and search for solutions to preserve it. The 2018 theme ‘Keep Cool and Carry On: The Montreal Protocol’ is a motivational rallying call urging all of us to carry on with the exemplary work of protecting the ozone layer and the climate under the Montreal Protocol. The Ozone layer is a fragile shield of gas that protects the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation of the sun and thus helps in preserving life on the planet. Substances like Chlorofluorocarbons, halons, Carbontetrachloride are responsible for ozone layer depletion.

74.  The 2nd edition of the Nepal-China joint military exercise “Mt Everest Friendship Exercise (or Sagarmatha Friendship-2018” has started at Chengdu, the capital of China’s southwestern Sichuan Province, from September 17. The aim of the 10-day exercise is to share expertise in disaster management and to fight terrorism, among others. This will reduce Nepal’s dependence on India and allow China to get a firmer foothold in the sub-continental drama. This comes at a time when Nepal refuses to participate in the first-ever BIMSTEC military exercise “MILEX-18”, which has started in India from September 10.

75.  On 2018 World Ozone Day (WOD), the Union Environment Minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan released a draft India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) and a booklet on ‘Montreal Protocol – India’s Success Story’. With this, India has become the world’s first country to develop such a document (ICAP), which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand. This will help in reducing both direct and indirect emissions. The thrust of the ICAP is to look for synergies in actions for securing both environmental and socio-economic benefits. The overarching goal of ICAP is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society. The Montreal Protocol is the only environmental treaty, which enjoys universal ratification of 197 UN numbers countries, to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

76.  Bollywood stars Varun Dhawan and Anushka Sharma have been signed as ambassadors of Skill India Campaign to promote and endorse the Skill India Mission. The actors will next be seen in “Sui Dhaaga – Made in India”, which highlights the untapped potential of India’s talented craftsmen and skilled workers at the grassroot level and the challenges and issues faced by them. Varun plays a tailor named Mauji and Anushka essays the role of his wife and embroiderer Mamta. The film, which is directed by Sharat Katariya, hit the theatres on September 28, 2018. The Skill India Mission was launched by PM Narendra Modi on July 2015 to train over 40 crore people in different skills by 2022. It includes various initiatives of the government like “National Skill Development Mission”, “National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015”, “Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)” and the “Skill Loan scheme”.

77.  Anna Rajam Malhotra (91) was the India’s first woman IAS officer after Independence, who passed away in Mumbai, Maharashtra on September 17, 2018. Born in July 1927 in Kerala’s Ernakulam district, she joined the civil services in 1951 and had served in the Madras cadre under then CM C Rajagopalachari and in the central government. Besides serving under Rajagopalachari, she had worked closely with Rajiv Gandhi when he was in charge of the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi. She had also accompanied late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on many state trips. She married RN Malhotra, who had served as the Governor of RBI between 1985 and 1990. Anna, who retired in 1996, was also responsible for building the country’s first computerised port Nhavasheva in Mumbai. In 1989, she was honoured with the Padma Bhushan award.

78.  Anushka Sharma has been bestowed with the prestigious Smita Patil Memorial Award 2018 at the 34th edition of Priyadarshni Academy’s Global Awards in a non-profit, socio-cultural and educational organization.

79.  According to Mercom India Research, the total installed capacity of solar power generation of India has crossed 25 giga watts (GV). This includes both large-scale and rooftop solar. The utility-scale solar PV projects in India accounts for over 22.5 GW of installed capacity & the rooftop solar projects account for over 2.4 GW as of date. Karnataka is the top solar state of India followed by Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Mercom India Research forecasts solar installations of approximately 8.3 GW in CY 2018. Out of this, over 5 GW of solar projects have been installed in the first half of the year. Installation rates are forecasted to decline in the second half due to lack of a strong project pipeline. The solar installations of approximately 8.3 GW in CY 2018. Out of this, over 5 GW of solar projects have been installed in the first half of the year. Installation rates are forecasted to decline in the second half due to lack of a strong project pipeline. The solar installations in 2019 are also expected to be flat as longer commissioning timeline will push approximately 1.3 GW of large-scale projects from 2019 to 2020.

80.  The joint air tactical exercise “Aviaindra-18” has started between Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Air Force of the Russian Federation at Lipetsk, Russia from September 17 to 28. The second session of Aviaindra 18 would be conducted in Jodhpur, India from December 10 Dec to 22. The aim of the exercise is focused towards anti-terrorist operations in a bi-lateral scenario. The exercise would further enhance the co-operation and understanding each other’s Concept of Operations. In addition to flying exercise, there would be formal interactions, discussions, exchange of ideas and friendly sports matches to enhance bonhomie between the two Air Forces. Exercise Aviaindra is an Air Force level exercise between India and the Russian Federation. First Aviaindra was conducted in 2014 and has been planned as a bi-annual exercise.

81.  The Odisha Assembly has recently passed a unanimous resolution to name the newly-built Jharsuguda airport after noted freedom fighter Veer Surendra Sai. Prime Minister Narendra Modi is scheduled to inaugurate the airport on 22 September 2018. Earlier, in July 2018, the Centre had asked the State government naming of the airport is to be considered only after a resolution passed in the Odisha assembly. Jharsuguda airport will be the 2nd operational airport in Odisha after Biju Patnaik International airport in Bhubaneswar. Veer Surendra Sai, who was born on January 1809 in Sambalpur district of the State, had sacrificed his life fighting against British East India company. He and his associates resisted the British and successfully protected most parts of Western Odisha region for some time from the British rule. Many of them were hanged by the British & a few died in the Cellular Jail in the Andamans. Surendra Sai died in Asirgarh Jail on 23rd May 1884.

82.  All-women crew of INSV Tarini has bagged the prestigious Tenzing Norgay National Adventure award for beating the odds in water with their enduring skills and sailing across the world for 8 long months. The award ceremony will be held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on September 25. The award is the highest national recognition for outstanding achievements in the field of adventure on land, sea and air. The women Navy officers had spent as many as 194 at sea as part of a mission under the Navika Sagar Parikrama project that began in September 2017. The crew was also bestowed with Nav Sena Medal on the occasion of 72nd Independence Day. The team had arrived in Panaji, Goa on May 21 after successfully circumnavigating the globe for 8 months. They also set a record by becoming the first-ever all-women crew to complete circumnavigation. The INSV Tarini team, led by Lt. Commander Vartika Joshi, is comprised Lt. P. Swathi, Lt. Pratibha Jamwal, Lt. Vijaya Devi, Sub Lt. Payal Gupta and Lt. B Aishwarya.

83.  India’s first indigenously developed 500-megawatt (mw) prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu is expected to achieve criticality in 2019. This was stated by Sekhar Basu, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, at the 62th General Conference of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, on 19th September 2018. The indigenously developed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)is now undergoing sodium commissioning. The reactor was designed by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR).Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (Bhavini), a public sector company under DAE, has been given the responsibility to build the fast breeder reactors in the country.

84.  Indian Cricket Captain Virat Kohli and world champion Weightlifter Mirabai Chanu will honoured with the prestigious 2018 Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna by President Ram Nath Kovind on 25th September 2018. Chanu was chosen for the prestigious award following her gold medal in 48-kilogram category at the World Championships in 2017. She also bagged the yellow metal in 2018 Commonwealth Games but did not compete at the Asian Games due to injury. Kohli, the world’s top-ranked batsman in both Tests and ODIs as per the ICC rankings, has been in stupendous form in the past three years. Star javelin thrower Neeraj Chopra is among 20 sportspersons picked for the Arjuna Awards. The President will also present the Dronacharya and Dhyan Chand Awards on the same day.

85.  The indigenously developed surface-to-surface Short-range tactical ballistic missile “Prahar” has been successfully flight tested by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from complex-III of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur, Odisha. Fuelled by a solid propellant, Prahar is about 7.3 m long and can carry a payload of 200 kg. The missile has a strike range of 150 km & can be transported to anywhere within a short span of time. It is a quick-reaction, all-weather, all-terrain, highly accurate battlefield support tactical weapon system. It is equipped with a state-of-the-art navigation, guidance and electro-mechanical actuation systems with latest onboard computer. The missile is capable of carrying different types of warheads & will operate as battle field support system to the Indian Army. It has a greater manoeuvring capability, acceleration and can be deployed in different kinds of terrain making it more effective against strategic targets.

86.  Dr. Raghupati Singhania, Chairman and MD of JK Tyre & Industries Ltd, has been conferred with the ‘Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle’, the highest honour accorded to non-nationals by the Government of Mexico at the 128th National Day of Mexico. The honor is given because of the efforts to strengthen bilateral ties between India and Mexico.

87.  Assamese movie “Village Rockstars” has been chosen to represent India in the Best Foreign Language category at the 91st Academy Awards 2019. The film, which is directed by Rima Das, also won the Best Feature film Award at the 65th National Film Awards. The film follows Dhunu, a girl who grows up in poverty and learns to fend for herself. However, that does not prevent her from following her dream of forming a rock band and owning a guitar someday.

88.  India’s biggest cyclotron facility “Cyclone-30” has become operational at the Kolkata-based Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for treatment of cancer. The facility produces a 30MeV beam that will be used to produce radioisotopes for medical imaging & diagnosis. The Cyclone-30 is in the first phase of production generating Flouro Deocyglucose (FDG), a radioisotope used for date imaging and oncological tissue imaging. It will be the first and only facility in the country to produce Germanium 68 isotopes, which is used in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Simultaneously, it will also produce Palladium 103 isotopes, which is used for the treatment of prostate cancer. The machine has a capacity of catering to 60 to 90 patients in a day. In its future stages, the machine will also work on the production of Iodine 123 isotopes, which can help detect thyroid cancer. The machine can also be used for research in the fields of material science and nuclear physics.

89.  On September 22, President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the centenary celebrations of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha (DBHPS) in New Delhi. The mail goal of DBHPS is to improve Hindi literacy among the non-Hindi speaking people of South India. It was established in 1918 by Mahatma Gandhi, who held the post of president till his death. The headquarters of the organisation is located at Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

90.  The Tamil Nadu government has announced a novel scheme for the protection of the exotic Neela kurinji (Strobilanthus kunthianus) plants that flower only once in 12 years. This came after the complaints of packaging and selling of these rare and ecologically unique flowers on commercial basis. The state department has warned that strict fines will be imposed in offenders. The Neela Kurinju is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats. It is a major attraction to foreign & native tourists and one of the prime foreign exchange earners from tourism. The Kurinji plant belongs to the genus Strobilanthes, which was first scientifically described by Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck in the 19th century. The Paliyan tribal people living in Tamil Nadu used it as a reference to calculate their age.

91.  The Government of Nepal has appointed former Member of Parliament and renowned Indian actress Jaya Prada as Goodwill Ambassador for tourism and culture for four years. Tourism is one of the important sources of employment and income generation in Nepal and India is the biggest source market for Nepal. As per officials, the appointment of Jaya Prada will strengthen age old cultural ties between the two countries and help in promoting Nepal’s tourism in India. The Govt. of Nepal has decided to observe the year 2020 as the ‘Visit Nepal Year’ with a target of at least two million international arrivals every year.

92.  Nepal is set to become the world’s first country to double its tiger population. On the occasion of 2018 National Conservation Day (NCD), Nepal announced that there are now an estimated 235 wild tigers in the country, nearly doubling the baseline of around 121 tigers in 2009. According to a press release issued by WWF-Nepal, if these trends continue, Nepal could become the first country to double its national tiger population since the launch of ambitious TX2 goal at the St Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010 to double the world’s wild tiger population by 2022. Nepal conducted its national tiger survey between November 2017 and April 2018 in the trans-boundary Terai Arc Landscape (TAL), a vast area of diverse ecosystems shared with India. The earlier tiger survey in 2013 had estimated the tiger population at 198.

93.  India has recently celebrated the 100 years of Battle of Haifa with a grand function in New Delhi on September 23, 2018. It is being commemorated in Israel, Delhi and Jaipur. On this day, in 1918, the Indian soldiers from the Mysore, Hyderabad and Jodhpur Lancers liberated the strategically important city of Haifa, known for its deep water bay in the eastern Mediterranean. The sacrifice made by the Indian soldiers is honoured and memorialized in 7 cemeteries across Israel, from Jerusalem to Haifa. Close to 900 Indian soldiers are buried in these cemeteries, which act as an immortal testimonial for their heroism. The Indian Army commemorates September 23 every year as Haifa Day to pay its respects to the two brave Indian Cavalry Regiments “Mysore and Jodhpur Lancers” that helped liberate the city following a dashing cavalry action by the 15th Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade.

94.  Opposition leader Ibrahim Mohamed Solih has won the 2018 presidential election of Maldives. He will take office on 17th November 2018, after having defeated President Abdulla Yameen in the election. The Maldives is a key battleground in the rivalry between China and India. Solih’s win presents an opportunity for India to rebuild the traditionally strong ties between the two countries in order to counter China’s growing influence in the Indian Ocean region. The Maldives is made up of 26 coral atolls and 1,192 islands. More than 400,000 people live there but its future hangs in the balance due to climate change. Tourism is a vital part of its economy

95.  Andhra Pradesh has topped the charts among States in terms of “2018 Ease of Living Index” rankings launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). Odisha and Madhya Pradesh bagged second and third best performing awards. The Ease of Living Index is a transformative initiative of the Ministry under AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation). The index seeks to assist cities in undertaking a 360-degree assessment of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This initiative will encourage all cities to move towards an ‘outcome-based’ approach to urban planning and management and promote healthy competition among cities.

96.  The first-ever women-only foreign minister conference was held in Montreal, Canada on September 21-22, 2018 . The aim of the conference was to highlight women’s key role in politics and decision-making processes. The meeting was cochaired by Canada’s top diplomat Chrystia Freeland, and the foreign affairs representative of the EU, Federica Mogherini. The foreign ministers from almost 20 countries discussed topics including international security and peace, promoting and strengthening democracy and the elimination of gender-based violence. The conference is also being attended by female top diplomats from Andorra, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Namibia, Norway, Panama, South Africa, Rwanda, Saint Lucia and Sweden.

97.  Luka Modric, who led Croatia to their first-ever FIFA World Cup final, was named The Best FIFA Men’s Player at the Best FIFA Football Awards in London. Modric won the Champions League for the third time in a row with his club “Real Madrid” in May 2018 before leading Croatia to the 2018 World Cup final, where they lost 4-2 to France. He is the first player other than Cristiano Ronaldo or Lionel Messi to win the FIFA award since Kaka in 2007. Beside Modric, Brazil and Orlando Pride forward Marta was named the FIFA women’s player of the year for the 6th time but the first time since 2010. France’s Didier Deschamps — whose side beat Modric’s Croatia 4-2 in the World Cup final — was named best men’s coach. Mohamed Salah won the Puskas award for the best goal for his effort against Everton in the Premier League at Anfield in December 2017.

98.  The United Nations (UN) has recently declared the period from 2019 to 2028 as the Nelson Mandela Decade of Peace at the Nelson Mandela Peace Summit in New York on 24 September 2018. UN has called for redoubling efforts to pursue international peace and security, development and human rights. This political declaration was unanimously adopted by nearly 100 nations from around the world to revive the values for which Nelson Mandela stood by emphasising human dignity. A statue of Nelson Mandela has been unveiled at the United Nations to honour the late South African leader’s 100th birth anniversary.

99.  The Supreme Court of India (SCI) has recently constituted a Committee on Prison Reforms chaired by former apex court judge, Justice Amitava Roy, to examine the various problems plaguing prisons in the country. The committee has been asked to recommend steps for the psycho-social well-being of minor children of women prisoners, including their education and health. It would also probe the reasons for violence in prisons and correctional homes and recommend measures to prevent unnatural deaths and assess the availability of medical facilities in prisons and correctional homes and make recommendations. It would assess the availability and inadequacy of staff in prisons and correctional homes, suggest training and educational modules for the staff and assess the feasibility of establishing open prisons. The court asked the committee to complete the collection of data and information and make submit it in a year.

100.    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has signed a cooperation agreement with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to support the humanitarian response plan in Yemen, Myanmar and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in addition to support ICRC’s budget, totaling $11 million. Under the agreement, the UAE will provide the ICRC with $6 million to support health centres, water and sanitation facilities in Yemen, $1 million to support the Organisation’s humanitarian efforts in Myanmar, $1 million to support humanitarian efforts in DRC, in addition to $3 million to support general programmes. The agreement also includes support to health centres, water and rehabilitation of sanitation structures and meeting basic needs of those affected, as well as assisting disabled persons through the provision of physical rehabilitation services. The UAE is a member of the donor support group of the ICRC.

101.    In Nepal, the famous Indra Jatra festival 2018 is being celebrated in Kathmandu with gaiety and religious fervor. The 8-day long annual festival is observed to worship Indra, the lord of rain and good harvest. It also marks end of monsoon and beginning of harvest season and festivity. The chariot procession and mask dances are the main attraction of Indra Jatra. On fourth day of festival the chariot procession of living Goddess Kumari, Lord Ganesha and Lord Bhairav began from historic Basantapur Durbar Square on Monday. Nepal’s living Goddess Trishna Shakya made her first public appearance after she was appointed in September 2016. President Bidya Devi Bhandari and thousands of people attended the Jatra celebrations.

102.    Dr Harsh Vardhan, the union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate change (MoEF&CC), has inaugurated air pollution control device – Wind Augmentation Purifying Unit (WAYU) at ITO in New Delhi. WAYU is developed by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research –National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) to mitigate air pollution at traffic junctions. The prototype device has the capacity to purify air in an area of 500 meter square. It consumes only half a unit of electricity for 10 hours of running and has a maintenance cost of only Rs. 1500 per month. Along with particulate matter, the device will remove poisonous gases such as volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. This device works on two principles mainly wind generation for dilution of air pollutants and active pollutants removal.

103.    Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been awarded with the UN’s highest environmental honour ‘Champions of the Earth 2018’ for his leadership of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) and pledge to eliminate single use plastic in India by 2022. The other winners of the 2018 award include indigenous activist Joan Carling, Food company Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods, which develops plantbased substitutes for meat and dairy products, and China’s Zhejiang’s Green Rural Revival Programme. Beside this, Cochin International Airport has also been honoured with the 2018 award for Entrepreneurial Vision for its leadership in the use of sustainable energy. The awards will be presented during the Champions of the Earth Gala in New York City, on the sidelines of the 73rd UN General Assembly (UNGA).

104.    The Japanese space agency JAXA has made history by successfully landing two robotic rovers on the surface of an asteroid Ryugu. The rovers are collectively known as MINERVA-II1 (MIcro Nano Experimental Robot Vehicle for Asteroid, the second generation), which were separated from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft on 21st September 2018 . The space agency reported that the small compact MINERVA-II1 is the world’s first mobile exploration robot to land on the surface of an asteroid. This is also the first time for autonomous movement and picture capture on an asteroid surface. Therefore, MINERVA-II1 is the world’s first man-made object to explore movement on an asteroid surface. Asteroids are believed to have rich information about the formation of the solar system billions of years ago. The third rover called MASCOT will be launched from Hayabusa2 in early October 2018. If successful, MASCOT will be the world’s first sample return mission to a C-type asteroid.

105.    On September 26, the Supreme Court of India (SCI) declared the Centre’s flagship Aadhaar scheme as constitutionally valid for filing of IT returns and allotment of Permanent Account Number (PAN), but struck down some of its provisions including its linking with bank accounts, mobile phones and school admissions. A 5- judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra held that Aadhaar would not be mandatory to link with bank accounts and telecom service providers cannot seek its linking for mobile connections. The CBSE, NEET, UGC cannot make Aadhaar mandatory and it is not compulsory for school admissions. The bench struck down the national security exception under the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act. The bench also struck down Section 57 of Aadhaar Act permitting private entities to avail Aadhaar data and ruled that Aadhaar authentication data cannot be stored for more than six months. It directed the government not to give Aadhaar to illegal immigrants.

106.    The World Tourism Day (WTD) is observed every year on September 27 to raise awareness among the international community of the importance of tourism and its social, cultural, political and economic value. The 2018 theme is “Tourism and the Digital Transformation”. The 2018 WTD is a unique opportunity to raise awareness on the potential contribution of digital technologies to sustainable tourism development, while providing a platform for investment, partnerships and collaboration towards a more responsible and inclusive tourism sector.

107.    India has become the first and only SAARC country to have a quit-line number on tobacco products. The Union Health Ministry has already made 85% pictorial health warning mandatory on both sides of packets containing cigarettes, bidis, and chewing tobacco. The quit-line number will be printed on all tobacco products manufactured after September 1, 2018. For smoking and smokeless forms of tobacco products, the words ‘Tobacco causes cancer’ and ‘Tobacco causes painful death’ shall appear in white font on a red background and the words ‘Quit today call — 1800-11-2356’ shall appear in white font on a black background. India is the 4th country in Asia after Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore to have this government helpline for those looking at quitting tobacco. At least 46 countries have quit-line numbers as part of health warning labels on tobacco product packaging.

108.    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has approved a $150 million loan to establish India’s first multi-skills park in Bhopal. As per ADB, the skills gap in Madhya Pradesh is expected to increase in the next 6 years, with an incremental demand for skilled workers projected to hit 5.6 million in 2024. This new flagship Global Skills Park (GSP) is to be equipped with international training facilities to enhance the quality of Madhya Pradesh’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system. It will create a more skilled workforce that meets the labour market needs of the state. The GSP campus, which will serve as the state’s central hub for other TVET institutes, will have training facilities focusing on skills for manufacturing, service, and advanced agricultural jobs, benefitting about 20,000 trainees and trainers.

109.    For the first time, the Kerala government has decided to create the post of ‘firewomen’ in the Kerala State Fire and Rescue Services in a bid to break gender stereotypes. The purpose of this novel initiative is to ensure gender equality & to enhance the participation of women in various sectors.

110.    The International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons is observed every year on September 26 to provide an opportunity to educate the public – and their leaders – about the real benefits of eliminating such weapons, and the social and economic costs of perpetuating them. The day provides an occasion for the world community to reaffirm its commitment to global nuclear disarmament as a high priority.

111.    Recently, Five-time world champion boxer MC Mary Kom has been named as the brand ambassador of Tribes India – an initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs to promote tribal artefacts. Apart from this, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs launched the “Punch Tantra” collection to promote tribal artefacts. Punch Tantra is an exclusive collection, which comprises a range of ethic and traditional tribal handicrafts and handloom products.

112.    The Union government has recently constituted an 8-member Lokpal Search Committee under the Chairmanship of former Supreme Court Judge, Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai, to recommend the chairperson and members of the anti-corruption ombudsman Lokpal. The committee has former chief of State Bank of India (SBI) Arundhati Bhattacharya, Prasar Bharati chairperson A Surya Prakash and ISRO head S Kiran Kumar as members.

113.    In Madhya Pradesh, India’s first corn festival is being held in Chhindwara from September 29 to bring together researchers, industrialists, farmers and other stakeholders from across the country to explore the unrealized potential of the city in becoming a hub for corn based industries. The 2-days festival is one of a kind international event. Chhindwara is the largest corn producing district in Madhya Pradesh with productivity of 5200Kg per hectare. In 2017-2018, the production is 12 lac ton corn from 2,60,000 hectare – highest in the state. Chhindwara is very well connected with Nagpur (130 km) and Wardha dry port (175 Km) via national and state highways. Hence, the city is best suited for developing Corn based industries. Corn (also known as Maize) has become a major industrial crop owing to its use in plethora of industries. The corn-based plastic is considered a bioplastic because it is made from plant materials.

114.    NITI Aayog has signed a Statement of Intent (SoI) with cloud services provider Oracle to curb the distribution of fake drugs using new technologies. Apollo Hospitals and Strides Pharma Sciences will partner in this effort. The partners will pilot a real drug supply chain using blockchain decentralized ledger and Internet of Things (IoT) software. The Blockchain technology helps to permanently register a drug’s record in the manufacturer’s drug supply chain (serial number, labelling, scanning), leaving no scope for record tampering. At every point of hand change, it records the drug’s movement – from manufacturer to logistics, to stockist to hospital, or pharmacy to consumer. In case of a fake drug, the software will detect irregularity. Additionally, critical information such as chemical ingredients of the drug or maintenance of temperature control in case of life saving drugs or vaccines can also be tracked.

115.    Commerce Minister Suresh Prabhu has recently approved the constitution of a High Level Advisory Group (HLAG) to look into the opportunities and ways to address the ongoing challenges in the global trade scenario. The HLAG will be headed by Surjit S. Bhalla, Director of Oxus Research and Investments. The HLAG will consider ways for boosting India’s share and importance in global merchandise and services trade, managing pressing bilateral trade relations and mainstreaming new age policy making. The Terms of Reference (ToR) of the HLAG are to examine the prevailing international trade dynamics, including the rising protectionist tendencies, particularly by the major economies, non-engagement of some countries on outstanding trade negotiation issues and commitments, including the Doha Development Agenda, and their insistence on pursuing negotiating mandates, in many cases prematurely and without efforts, to build consensus and common understanding.

116.    No Indian institution figures in the top 250 of the Times Higher Education’s (THE) world university rankings 2019. Though, the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru has retained its position as the highest-ranked centre in India. It was placed between the 251-300 band, while IIT Indore, Bombay and Roorkee with Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University from Karnataka make the country’s top five. Globally, University of Oxford has acquired first position for a third consecutive year followed by Cambridge and Stanford University. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology rose one place to number four. In India, number of Indian institutions in the rankings increased from 42 last year to 49, making it the fifth best-represented nation.

117.    The World Rabies Day (WRD) is observed every year on September 28 to raise awareness about rabies prevention and to highlight progress in defeating this horrifying disease. The day also marks the anniversary of Louis Pasteur’s death, the French chemist and microbiologist, who developed the first rabies vaccine. The 2018 theme is ” Rabies: Share the message. Save a life! “. Today, safe and efficacious animal and human vaccines are among the important tools that exist to eliminate human deaths from rabies while awareness is the key driver for success of communities to engage in effective rabies prevention.